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Flashcards in Test #4 Deck (59):
1

The study of the shape of the EArth's features and how they change over time

Geomorphology

2

"The present is the key to the past."

Uniformitarianism

3

Smaller units of time

Eras

4

Vast chunks of time

Eons

5

Rate of radioactive decay of rock elements to determine the age of rocks.

Radiometric dating

6

internal processes such as volcanic and tectonic activity

Endogenic

7

Rock layer of the Earth beneath the crust and surrounding the core, composed of ultramafic igneous rock of silicate minerals

Mantle

8

softer, most fluid layer of the mantle

Asthenosphere

9

Outer shell of rigid, brittle rock, including the crust and also the cooler, upeer part of the mantle.

Lithosphere

10

Isostasy

equilibrium

11

Rock formed from the cooling of magma

Igneous Rock

12

Rock formed from the accumulation of sediment strata

Sedimentary Rock

13

Rock altered in physical or chemical composition by heat, pressure, or other endogenic processes taking place at a substantial depth below the surface

Metamorphic rock

14

Major surface features of Earth's crust

Topography

15

The theory of tectonic activity, which deals with lithospheric plates and their motions

Plate tectonics

16

Movement of plates is driven by _________ from the earth's core

Heat

17

A boundary where two lithospheric plates move apart

Spreading boundaries

18

plates slide past each other without colliding

Transform boundaries

19

Two continents can converge to eliminate an ocean

Continental suture

20

_______ occur when a sharp break associated with a slippage of the crustal block on one side of a tectonic plate with respect to another

Faults

21

_________ faults occur when the crust on one side of normal fault drops down relative to the other side

NORMAL

22

___________ faults are produced when tectonic plates move past each other horizontally

Strike-slip

23

The east african rift valley is a

graben (a crustal block is dropped down between two normal faults)

24

A trembling or shaking of the ground produced by movements along a fault

Earthquakes

25

Location where fault slipped

Focus

26

The location on the earths surface directly above where a fault slipped to produce an earthquake

Epicenter

27

__________ are calculated by triangulating the readings from three different seismometer reading centers ( A B C) using the difference in travel times for P and S waves

Epicenters

28

The amount of energy released by an earthquake

Magnitude

29

Magnitude is measured on the __________ scale

Richter scale

30

A center of volcanic activity thought to be located over a rising mantle plume.

Hot Spots

31

Volcano constructed of multiple layers of lava and tephra (volcanic ash)

Stratovolcano

32

low often large, dome-like accumulation of basalt lava flows emerging from long, radial fissures on flanks

Shield volcano

33

We use the _________ timescale in order to talk about the time frame of geologic events

Geologic

34

____________ processes, such as weathering by wind and water, work at the Earth's surface

Exogenic

35

__________ landforms are newly created by volcanic and tectonic activity.

Initial

36

Exogenic processes wear down initial landforms to create ____________ landforms

Sequential

37

Usually composed of two or more minerals

Rocks

38

Crustal elements can form chemical compounds that we recognize as _________

Minerals

39

Sediments are generally deposited by wind and water in layers, called __________.

Strata

40

Full-scale scientific theory describing the breakup of a single supercontinent, which is named __________

Pangea

41

A boundary where two lithospheric plates slide past each other

Transform boundary

42

A boundary where two lithospheric plates come together

Convergent boundary

43

The central belt of submarine mountains where two plates seperate

Mid oceanic ridge

44

Descent of the edge of a lithospheric plate under an adjoining plate into the asthenosphere

Subduction

45

Corrugations of strata caused by crystal compression

Folds

46

The folding of crust where two continental plates meet contributes to a mountain-building process called _________

Orogeny

47

The arch in folds of the earth's crust

Anticlines

48

The U-shaped base of folds in the Earths crust

Synclines

49

A crustal block dropped down between two normal faults

Graben

50

A crustal block pushed up between two normal faults

Horst

51

All the processes that physically disintegrate or chemically decompose a rock at or near the EARTH'S surface

Weathering

52

The abrupt or incremental downhill movement of soil, regolith, and bedrock under the influence of gravity

Mass wasting

53

The layer of rock and mineral particles that lies above bedrock

Regolith

54

The solid rock layer under soil and regolith, which is relatively unchanged by weathering

Bedrock

55

The breakup of massive rock (bedrock) by physical forces at or near the earth's surface

Physical weathering

56

When layers of rock are peeled away

Exfoliation

57

Rock forming minerals expand when heated and contract when cooled

Thermal action

58

The decomposition or decay of minerals in rocks by chemical reactions with water, oxygen, and acids

Chemical weathering

59

Minerals react chemically with water

Hydrolysis