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Flashcards in Test 4 Deck (82):
1

- breaks down food molecules into absorbable units

Digestive System

2

Food contains energy and building material for the cells; the energy is locked up in _____ bonds

C-H

3

________ involves releasing/storing energy

Metabolism

4

_____ involves breaking down energy (energy is released)

Catabolism

5

______ involves building up molecules (energy is stored)

Anabolism

6

- biological catalyst that speeds up reactions without changing themselves in the process - usually ends with “ase”

Enzymes

7

The digestive system requires _______ for catabolism

enzymes

8

_______ compounds contain C-H bonds

Organic

9

4 Organic compounds :

Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids

10

- the way food goes through the body - food tube

Alimentary Canal

11

- sharp for cutting

Incisors

12

- pointed for tearing

Canines

13

- blunt for grinding

Premolars/Molars

14

- taste buds are located on papilla; mixes the food

Tongue

15

______ ____ is the enzyme that breaks down starch

Salivary amylase

16

- duct leads to an area between upper cheek and gum

Parotid

17

- ducts leads to the floor of the mouth

Sublingual/Submandibular

18

- muscle that anchors tongue to the mouth floor

Lingual Frenum

19

- chewed up food that is swallowed

Bolus

20

Movement in the esophagus is due to ________ - a wave live muscular contraction which pushes bolus into the stomach

peristalsis

21

________ junction - at the hiatus (esophagus enters diaphragm and enters to stomach)

Gastroesophageal

22

- mixture of food ad gastric juice that is produced by gastric glands of the stomach

Chyme

23

- longitudinal folds that allow for distension of the stomach

Rugae

24

Gastric glands of the stomach have 3 types of cells:

Mucous producing cells
Parietal cells produce HCL
Chief cells produce pepsin

25

- most chemical digestion and absorption occurs here

Duodenum

26

- terminal portion of small intestine

Ileum

27

- finger like projections that increase surface volume of the small intestine for greater absorption

Villus

28

The villus is part of the mucosa. Within the villus are blood capillaries which absorb the water soluble monomers of carbohydrates and proteins. There is also a lacteal that absorbs the chylomicrons that carry water insoluble ______of lipids.

monomers

29

- water is absorbed, solid waste is formed, electrolytes are absorbed

Large intestine

30

Bacteria such as _____ metabolize undigested food and produce vitamins and produce gas like co2

e coli

31

Pancreatic juice is made by _____ cells of the pancreas. It is a alkaline (high pH) to neutralize the acidic chyme entering from the stomach. It also has digestive enzymes for the breakdown of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids

acinar

32

Pancreatic amylase digest ______

starch

33

Trypsin and chymotrypsin digest ______

proteins

34

Pancreatic lipase digest ____

lipids

35

_____ is manufactured in the liver and is an emulsifier to lipids; it acts as a detergent to increase surface area of fats for digestion

Bile

36

Liver is divided into lobules which are composed of ______ (epithelial liver cells)

hepatocytes

37

The _____ _____ system consists of nutrient rich veins leaving the small intestine

hepatic portal

38

____________ are able to metabolize these nutrients; they secrete bile, store glucose as glycogen(animal starch-polysaccharide), assemble amino acids, store fat vitamins, detoxify blood

Hepatocytes

39

_______ is the chef bile pigment

Bilirubin

40

Hepatopancreatic _______ is the site where the bile duct and pancreatic duct meet

ampulla

41

- conversion of glycerol and amino acids into glucose

Gluconeogenesis

42

- storage of excess glucose

Glycogen synthesis

43

Excessive carbohydrates my provide raw materials for ______

lipogenesis

44

If carbohydrate drop to low levels, ____ will occur which is a low blood pH

ketosis

45

- Removal of nitrogen

Deamination

46

_____ is a nitrogenous waste

Urea

47

- amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1kg of water by 1 degree celsius

Kilocalories

48

- iron is absorbed into mucosa but does not enter blood until needed

Iron mucosal barrier

49

The brain and nerve cells require _____ for generation of ATP

glucose

50

Fructose and galactose are converted to glucose in the _______

liver

51

Glucose accounts for 80% of ______ which are absorbed into capillaries of villi

monosaccharides

52

_______ is a link between endocrine system and nervous system

Hypothalamus

53

Sources of glucose during fasting:

Liver glycogen
Glycerol produced in adipose tissue
Muscle glycogen
Tissue protein

54

Basal metabolic rate measured in a _______ state, reclining, relaxed and in a room 20-25C

post-absorptive

55

Methods of heat loss -

radiation, evaporation, convection and conduction

56

______ is the thermostat of the body

Hypothalamus

57

- increased metabolism, skin remains cold and chilling results

Vasoconstriction

58

- blood vessels dilate and heat is lost, results in drop in body temperature

Vasodialation

59

Fever results in chilling; body temperature is ____

rising

60

- indication that body temperature has fallen

Crisis

61

- high humidity, fluid and electrolyte loss results in cramps, dizziness, vomiting, fainting

Heat exhaustion

62

- high temperature and humidity, brain cells affected confusion results

Heat stroke

63

Functions of the lymphatic system:

Carries nourishment and waste
Lipid absorption
Defence against disease
Conservation of plasma proteins

64

- clear watery fluid in lymphatic vessels

Lymph

65

- tiny vessels in intercellular spaces

Lymphatic capillaries

66

- lymphatic capillaries unite to form these

Lymphatic vessels

67

Main lymphatic vessels:

Thoracic duct
Right lymphatic duct

68

The __________ ____ begins in the abdomen at the upper end of the cisternae chyli. It continues in front of the vertebrae and enters the left subclavian vein at the angle of the left internal jugular

thoracic duct

69

The ________ ______ joins the right subclavian vein at the junction of the right internal jugular. It returns from the right side of head, neck, liver, right lung and right arm

right lymphatic duct

70

- small oval shaped bodies placed in the course of lymphatics; lymph enters channels that are lined with macrophages which act to filter harmful matter before it reaches the bloodstream

Lymph nodes

71

- bean shaped lymph gland situated beneath the diaphragm and behind the stomach

Spleen.

72

Functions of the spleen:

blood filtration, blood destruction, blood storage, immune

73

- three types: palatine, adenoids, lingual; functions are to guard entrance of respiratory tract and to develop immune bodies

Tonsils

74

- located in upper chest cavity along the trachea; Function: development of bodies immune system

Thymus

75

- worm like shoot off the cecum, once thought useless.

Appendix

76

_______ located in small intestine; Functions: destroy bacteria, and generate memory of immunity

Peyer’s Patches

77

- resist invasion by micro- organisms and destroy foreign cells

Immune response

78

- response is mediated by antibodies; effective against bacterial infections

B-cell system

79

- cells specialized for foreign substances; effective against viruses, fungus, bacteria, malignant cells. Thymus produces these

T-cell system

80

- blockage of lymph cells due to ringworm

Elephantiasis

81

- inflammation of lymph vessels

Lymphangitis

82

- lymph node enlargement

Hodgkin's disease