Flashcards in Test #4 / Final Deck (39):
What does the Roman regulation of mourning activity (Shelton pg 94) demonstrate to us about their attitude toward gender? How is this related to sumptuary laws?
It doesn't specify how long to morn a wife (as if only women need to be told to stop mourning and get back to having children)
Similar to sumptuary laws it was restricting what women could do and legislating morality
How did life expectancy affect families and relationships between parents/children? What was the aristocratic funeral like? What was the importance of the young man’s funeral oration? What was special about the procession of ancient nobles, and how was it like a living family tree?
Life expectancies especially for children were short so a parent could expect them to likely die untill they were older so parents were likely not to get too attached at a young age.
An aristocratic funeral especially if they accomplished alot in their life might include a procession through the city and include a public eulogy of their accomplishments
they may also include their family members wax maxs
What were the funeral clubs and who could be in them?
Funeral clubs were clubs where people shared the costs of a funeral by monthly fees but where also social clubs where one could go to socialize
What was the Laudatio Turiae? What happened in the story given in the Laudatio Turiae?
really long funeral narration/inscription about wife very emotional shows importance of women standing up for husband and family also shows women roles in Roman society
also shows his own importance and his through accomplishments through his wife's story
What do you think some of the purposes were of those inscriptions on milestones (examples in Shelton) describing construction work?
they were important to showing who gets the credit / prestige for the accomplishment and they also remind the locals of the importance of Roman in terms of the economic benefit
also duty of rich people to do that stuff = eurgetism
What were Roman aqueducts like?
Roman aqueducts brought clean water to the city via a very gradual grade so as to not erode the structure there were rules about building near them and stuff
What was the Cloaca Maxima, and what was historically important about it?
The cloaca maxima was a drainage system in ancient Rome (that one dude had to sail a boat through it apparently)
What were Roman toilets like?
Toilets - long bench with no pivacy it was common to use a communal sponge for cleaning public toilets were not common most used a chamber pot
What were Roman roads like?
Roman roads were well constructed (latter by legions) they were primarily military in purpose making it easier for the legions to get from place to place but also connected the empire and showed the importance of the people making the roads
via appia is an important Roman road the first pace road
If you asked an ancient Roman and a modern American, “What is Shakespeare’s Macbeth about?”, how will the two responses differ from one another, and why?
The Romans did not emphasize the importance of symbolic meaning so they would know it was about a king in scottland although they did notice value judgements
however they were not into hermeneutic which is looking at deeper meaning the desire for power and its corruption etc.
Draw connections between the following 4 things: Propertius poem 2.7; Epicurean moral philosophy; Vergil’s Aeneid; the marriage legislation of Augustus
They are all related to duty and marriage.
Poem - about lover / mistress
Epicurean - about forsaking duty for pleasure
aneid - give up love (dido) for duty
Marriage legislation - duty in marriage
What did W.V. Harris have to say about ancient Roman literacy rates, and how did this conflict with the earlier understanding—and what were the stakes, for scholars?
He said that the rates were lower for the Romans than many other let on with optimistic predictions
for scholarship this means that the literature may not have been / be as representative of Roman society as a whole as was previously thought
What were the famous libraries in Rome? Who wrote Roman literature? What were the audiences, and the performance contexts, for Roman literature?
Palatine library built by Augustus
The rich people anyone technically but overwhelmingly the rich
most people experienced literature through theater or oration few from books which were expensive
What was the nature of the physical copies of Roman literature? Who were the literary patrons and how did that relationship affect the literature itself?
they were very expensive
literary patrons funded the work the writer wrote it mostly for prestige (no intellectual property)
the literature would not usually be critical of patron but neither was the patron censoring the work to fit their desires
What was the general Roman attitude toward the purpose of literature? How did Roman writers deal with their predecessors in Greek literature?
literature was supposed to be both pleasurable and useful
they viewed Greek literature as being better than theirs and they would frequently allude to Greek literature ot show how knowledgeable they were
What was the Romans’ version of their own literary history, and what was the traditional (biased) modern version of Roman literary history?
Things got better until vergil came along and he was the best and then things have gotten worse
modern scholarship did not entirely agree but went along a similar line saying vergil was the best but that others were also important
What is the difference between poetics and hermeneutics, and how does that relate to ancient Romans reading literature?
poetics is like structure and content hermeneutics is more like deeper meaning and stuff
Penelope Davies, Professor of Art & Art History at the University of Texas, once told me that the most important Roman art-historical development, as far as its impact on Roman history, was the invention of concrete. Why might she be justified in making that claim?
allows the building of whole new styles of Roman art work in their architecture
How does Horace’s Carmen Saeculare connect with the purposes of the Augustan art/architecture agenda (particularly in terms of symbolism and imagery)?
puts him at the high point and at the center connects him with divinity and stuff + connects to founding of Rome
polysemy - many possible meanings
What did the Etruscan influence of early Roman art look like?
emphasis on terracotta and similar imagery of the Gods many statues were actually made by Etruscans who were in turn influenced by the Greeks
When and why did Greek influence come to Roman art, and what did it look like?
especially with contact with the Greek world temples were very similar legends became similar alot of Greek artists were recruited to work in Rome and the Romans often stole greek art to put on their things and liked repilcating 4th and 5th century greek art
What are the differences between Greek and Italian-style temple architecture?
Greeks enter on all side Roman only front
Roman had raised platform
Romans had no back to the temple
What was the model for the portraiture of all elite conquerors?
Alexander ze Great with curly hair upturned gaze
What was the veristic style of Roman portraiture?
it was very realistic showing warts and all no Alexander like apperance :(
What distinguishes the 4 “styles” of Roman interior design/wall painting?
1 - looks like fancy material
2 - optical illusions and pillars to make room look bigger
3 - traditional painting and plain panels
4- decadent and over the top optical illusion and "grotsque" hybrids (wierder second style)
What were some areas where art could be used for Roman political “propaganda”?
could be used to associate yourself with a particular figure (like augustus) or claim lineage or that your great like Alexander etc
To what did Augustus liked to use art and visual depictions to connect himself?
In what area of Rome do we see this most prominently?
founding of rome peace prosperity and the high point
in his forum he puts himself in the middle and stuff
What is the term to describe how Augustus used vague imagery to mean a variety of different things to different audiences?
What were the two important purposes of the Augustan architectural program?
bigger and better than predecessors - showed how he was better
used for his history manipulation
What strategy typified the art of the Julio-Claudian successors of Augustus?
They tried to remind people of their connection with Augustus and make themselves appear similarly as good
What was Nero’s Golden House project? Why people mad and how did flavians respond
He built big petty house when Rome burned people mad because that was seen as exploitative of their suffering the flavians responded by being more austere
What was special about Trajan’s Column?
it showed his conquests in Dacia it was hard to read from the ground demonstrating it was for the gods
The rise of whom in imperial Rome explains the rise in elaborate wall paintings/murals and wall/floor mosaics, and why did that rise occur?
the middle class / artisans / skilled workers
more spreading of wealth?
how was the social death of slaves exploited
used to justify their slavery in that status was derived from ancestors and by denying ancestry you denied any status
also could be used as threat to split up families
conflict of order issue and resolution
issue rich plebs wanted power poor plebs wanted less exploitation
given right to hold office, plebiscite gets force of law, and 12 tables to limit extortion
role of the roman bureaucracy at socio-political level and practical functional level
allowed equestrians to have a role in the government but taking away a monopoly of power from the senators
functionally they allowed the more to be run more efficiently and skills allowed more ambitious projects such as roads and aqueducts
how did roman prejudice justify expansionist tendencies and how did it create a danger
bringing civilization to people and easterners were born to slavery
danger in that their weakness could infect the Romans
Marius' reforms role on the rise of teh princeps such as in the first triumverate
allowed the poor to enlist who were in it more for money and as a career than for national pride as such they were loyal to the general who ensured that they got payed