The index of the aterial fluid solution in primary dilution. It is the index of the arterial fluid solution in the tank after water has been added.
Strength of Injection
There is no reliable test to indicate when remains have been completely:
To completely saturate the tissue of every remains with a solution of sufficient strength to destroy most microorganisms.
The Only Safe Procedure for any Embalmer
Should be set at 70% tissue saturation by HCHO gas with secondary dilution at 2% index (formalin) in primary dilution. Historically, 1 gallon of 1% AFS per 50 lbs.
Minimal Disinfection Standards
A 5% index is usually sufficient to deal with most embalming problems on primary dilutions.
The temperature of ordinary tap water procedures hghly desirable results in the vast majority of cases, 60oF. Ice Cold water seems to be best for encouraging good drainage.
Temperature of Injection
Never inject a _____ body with hot water because liquid blood drainage will coagulate causing the body to swell severely. Hot water will not help the body to thaw out. Let the body thaw naturally or use cold water to thaw.
Heat acts as a catalyst to liberate HCHO gas rapidly; the end result is rapid firmness of tissue but only in confined areas near the point of injection.
Hot Water Embalming
- In cases where advanced decomposition is obvious (head freeze)
- Note: Burke does not agree with the 2 reasons below:
- Where drainage is minimal or non-existent and the embalmer anticipates at least eight points of injection.
- When the embalmer anticipates hypodermically injecting areas that he/she would normally be able to inject, attempt a hot water injection first.
Utilizing Hot Water Embalming
- Hot water will release fumes in the air and increase HCHO exposure to the embalmer.
- Hot water embalming will coagulate blood
- Hot water embalming only works for short distances.
Danger: Hot Water Embalming
Ideal presur in any case is that pressure which will overcome vascular resistance and cause a moderate uniform movement of the arterial fluid solution from the injector (machine) into the vascular system and ultimately into tissue cells.
Pressure of Injection
At the point of injection exclusive of back pressure for resistance in the vascular system.
Where the arterial tube enters the artery.
Point of Injection
A cloudiness resulting from the presence of suspended particles in water. Objectionable in water used to dilute embalming fluids. The size of the particles may be such that in aggregation, they can block capillaries and restrict fluid distribution and tissue preservation.
- i.e.- old embalming fluids
A solution that is slightly ______ to the blood and body liquids produces the best embalming results in water with a pH of 7.4.
The study of the toxic or harmful effects of chemicals on the body; it deals with the symptoms and treatment of poisoning as well as the identification of the poison.
Any chemical absorbed into the body tissues having harmful or fatal potential.
A poisonous substance produced by certain microorganisms.
Extracellular toxin produced and released by bacterial cells as a normal physical process.
Intracellular toxin produced and retained by bacterial cells and released only by destruction or death to the cells.
Any substance that is injurious to health of causes death, either taken internally or applied externally.
An agent that counteracts the effects of an ingested poison, either by inactivating it or by opposing its action following absorption.
- Salts of heavy metal-illegal chemicals in most cases
- Ethyl ether- butoxyethanol
- Carbon tetrachloride- trichloroethylene
- Chlorinated hydrocarbons- chlorine salts
- Benzene- toluene
- Examples of benzenes:
Examples of Some Hazardous Chemicals
Poisoning caused by the metals as:
- and thallium
should not be used in embalming chemistry.
Salts of Heavy Metals
Lethal dose: an abbreviation for the median dose of a toxin that will kill within a stated period of time 50% of the animals inoculated.
An abbreviation for minimal lethal dose. it is the minimum amount of toxin which when injected into a test animal will kill it in a specific amount of time.
- State of health
- Physical state of the poison
- Metabolic rate
- Method of administration
- Habituation (similar to tolerance)
Factors Influencing the Action of Poisons
The process of forming a habit; especially the process of becoming addicted to a drug. The method by which the nervous system gradually reduces response to a repeated stimulus.
In the human body, will vary greatly from poison to poison as well as person to person. Certain poisons have an affinity for certain organs and tissues causing specific effect related directly to the specific organ affected. The kidney and liver show signs of poisonings in most cases.
Signs of Poisonings