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Climate Change: Science, Impacts, and Hope > Test I > Flashcards

Flashcards in Test I Deck (111)
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1

Weather

What the conditions of the atmosphere are over a short period of time

2

Climate

How the atmosphere "behaves" over a relatively long period of time

3

Ecosystem

Bounded ecological system consisting of all the organisms in an area and the physical environment with which they interact.

4

IPCC

An organization put out by the UN and established by world governments, which includes 100+ countries agreeing line by line on documents regarding climate change. Estimates tend to be conservative (underestimates to a great extent). The documents are written by scientists and approved by non-scientists

5

Part per million (ppm)

One molecule out of one million particles

6

ppm of CO2 now

About 420 (blaze it) ppm

7

UN Conference on Environment and Development, 1992

AKA Earth Summit. Creates a new and equitable global partnership which included 27 principles on Climate.

8

Precautionary Principle in Environmental Science

One of the 27 Principles on Climate created by the UN Conference on Environment and Development (1992). Prevent even of cases of uncertainty, and the burden of proof falls on the proponents of an activity

9

Sustainable Development

One of the 27 Principles on Climate created by the UN Conference on Environment and Development (1992). Interdependence of social, environmental, and economic systems.

10

Polluter Pays

One of the 27 Principles on Climate created by the UN Conference on Environment and Development (1992). If a company causes pollution they should pay to remove it. But also ethicality for being able to pay for dolphin deaths.

11

The Principle of Equity

One of the 27 Principles on Climate created by the UN Conference on Environment and Development (1992). Each person has the same right to an equal amount of global environmental space and therefore a fair share of resources. Resource use in rich countries needs to decrease, while there is space for pour countries to use more to increase quality of living.

12

Adaptation

Anticipative measures to alleviate adverse impacts of Climate Change. Intervention occurs at the "Economic Damages" section of the flowchart.

13

Mitigation

Measures to limit Greenhouse Gas Concentrations in the atmosphere to avoid Climate Change and associated adverse impacts (gross damages). Intervention occurs within the "Emissions" section of the flowchart.

14

What are some potential Mitigation solutions?

- Increasing efficiency standards for emissions - Incentivizing renewable resources - Carbon tax - Using plants to sequester carbon (natural process but also kind of lame b/c plants are only 2% efficient and solar panels are even LAMER than plants)

15

Lag time

We are currently experiencing the effects of 100 years ago. We are currently locked into certain effects into the future from our carbon emissions now.

16

What are some potential Adaptation solutions?

-Heat-tolerant crops -Better weather alerts -Improved insurance -Land-use planning -Water reservoirs -Relocation out of high-risk areas

17

If we did not have an atmosphere, how many watts/m2 of radiation hit the earth? What is the effect of this?

About 288 watts/m2. It would be about -6 decrees Celsius.

18

What type of radiation enters the earth? What type leaves?

Sun radiation enters, and thermal radiation exits.

19

What gas makes up most of our atmosphere?

Nitrogen with 78%

20

What is the second-most common gas in the atmosphere?

Oxygen with 21%

21

List the Greenhouse Gases

Water vapor (H2O) Carbon dioxide (CO2) Methane (CH4) Nitrous Oxide (N2O or Nox) Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) Ozone (O3)

22

What is a major energy source that drives the climate system? What type of wave length does to emit?

The sun; shortwave

23

What type of wavelength is reflected back to the earth after bouncing off the surface? Why is it reflected? What is the effect?

Longwave; greenhouse gases (warming)

24

What surface has high albedo?

Ice. 85%-95% is reflected. That's why it's so bad if ice melts

25

What surfaces have low albedo?

Grass (70% absorbed), parking lots, and water

26

Sensible heat

Heat without a matter change (ice doesn't turn to water, etc.)

27

How much solar radiation is absorbed by the earth? What is the effect of this?

About 1/2. It causes warming.

28

How much of solar radiation is NOT absorbed by the earth? Where does it go?

About 1/2. 20% to the clouds and atmosphere, 30% is reflected back.

29

Convection

When hot air expands and cool air sinks

30

What part of the atmosphere do we live in?

The troposphere