# Test One Flashcards Preview

## Modalities Test One > Test One > Flashcards

Flashcards in Test One Deck (147)
1
Q

What is a Modality?

A

a Treatment intervention designed to have a therapeutic effect.

2
Q

How to use modalities

A

use as an adjunct to treatment use to enhance primary treatment spend about 15 minutes on modalities.

3
Q

Thermal Energies

A

Hot and Cold are relative terms Hot - more thermal energy Cold - less thermal energy Heat transfers from areas of high energy (Hot) to areas of low energy (cold) Heat goes from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration

4
Q

Converting Celcius to Farenheight

A

(C x 9/5) + 32 = F

5
Q

Converting Farenheight to Celcius

A

(F-32) 5/9 = C

6
Q

Specific Heat

A

water = 1 calorie/gram amount of heat per unit mass (energy) needed to raise the temperature of a substance one degree Celcius

7
Q

Max Temp for a Whirlpool

A

110 degrees

8
Q

Max temp for paraphin wax

A

125 degrees (higher than water because less energy goes into raising the temperature of the wax each degree)

9
Q

Fluidotherapy

A

ground corn cob can treat at higher temp than water because less energy goes into raising the temp –> gives off less energy

10
Q

Thermal Conductivity

A

Metal Spoon in Pot Sand has a higher conductivity than wood

11
Q

Magnitude of Application

A

Cold pack on ankle vs. full cold bath immersion use the more localized application if the patient is medically unstable.

12
Q

Physiological affects of heat application

A

BP - decreases HR - increases

13
Q

Physiological effects of cold application

A

BP - increases HR - decreases

14
Q

Duration of Hot pack application

A

6-8 minutes - penetrates to a depth of 1/2 cm 15-20 minutes - penetrates to a depth of 1-2 cm depth of penetration increases as the length of application increases

15
Q

How application of cold affects the blood vessels

A

1st constricts the blood vessels eventually, dilates the blood vessels (this is why your skin gets red when an ice pack has been on for a while. Make sure when you press down on the skin that the skin blanches and refills) (Hunting Response)

cyclical pattern to keep the temp from dropping below 50 degrees Farenheight

16
Q

Different ways to transfer thermal energy

A

17
Q

Conduction

A

physical contact that results in a transfer of heat

18
Q

A

Heat propagated through air NOT through direct contact

19
Q

Convection

A

Thermal energy is set in motion often combined with conduction and radiation i.e. hot whirlpool or a fan

20
Q

Evaporation

A

extracts energy when converting from liquid to gas transfer of heat from sweat fluid –> vapor resulting in a cooling effect

21
Q

Why are hot days so dangerous?

A

energy transfers from how to cold, so on a hot day when the temp outside is higher than body temp, the environment is actually transferring heat to the body rather than the body loosing heat to the environment. This could be especially problematic for a person who is exercising.

22
Q

effect of heat on metabolic rate

A

heat increases metabolism (o2 uptake)

NOT good for traumatic injury

23
Q

effect of cold on metabolic rate

A

cold decreases metabolic rate (o2 uptake)

e.g. packing a detached limb in ice decreases its need for O2

24
Q

what to do right after trauma (1st 48-72 hours)

A

R - Rest / I - Ice / C - mild compression / E - elevation

25
Q

Causes of Trauma

A

not just from accidents (one bad event etc.) can also be from overuse, overstretching

26
Q

1st inflammation process

A

body responds with vasoconstriction in the area

27
Q

2nd inflammation process

A

vasodilation increases blood flow and an increase release of inflammatory chemicals (histamin, brady plinen prostaglandins) the inflammatory chemicals increase capillary pressure and permeability (due to increased blood flow) fluid leaves the capillaries –> interstitial tissue –> edema/swelling (best sign that inflammation is occuring) edema compresses microcirculation causing secondary hypoxia (inflammation is required for healing to occur)

28
Q

Secondary Hypoxia (treatment)

A
```Caused by swelling/edema
apply cold (this slows metabolism)```
29
Q

Other effects of ice

A

minimizes release of inflammatory chemicals such as prostaglandins

vasoconstriction + an increase in blood viscosity

30
Q

Durration of Cold Pack Application

A

10 - 15 minutes of using ice or a cold pack

A Cryocuff can stay on for up to 2 hours

31
Q

How application of heat affects the blood vessels and other bodily systems

A

Application of heat causes the blood vessels to dilate.

Heat decreases Sympathetic nervous system activity

32
Q

Effects of Heat on joint viscosity and soft tissue extensibility

A

Heat decreases joint viscosity

Heat increases soft tissue extensibility

33
Q

Effects of Cold on Joint viscosity and soft tissue extensibility

A

Cold increases joint viscosity

Cold decreases soft tissue extensibility

34
Q

What intervention should you use for pain or muscle spasm

A

heat or cold

35
Q

Effects of Cold on Pain and Muscle Spasm

A

cold decreases pain and muscle spasm because it decreases nerve conduction velocity which slows the transmission of pain back to the Central Nervous System

when muscle spindles are hyperactive, they increase infp to dorsal horn

cold, decreases activity in muscle spindles

36
Q

Some uses for Cold application

A

treating people with spacticity (a neurological condition)

Clonus - rhythmic shaking, hyperactive muscle spindles

cod used to decrease tone and spasticity

cold results in a temporary decrease in nerve conduction velocity

Cold should be used if there is inflammation in the region

37
Q

Heat - effect on pain and muscle spasm

A

heat doesnot have a consistant effect on nerve conduction velocity

it does increase blood flow and vasodilation, washing out inflammatory byproducts

promotes relaxation and provides a competitive sensory input

Heat results in gamma output to efferent system which decreases activity in muscle spindles

38
Q

4 signs of acute inflammation

A

Swelling (tumor), Heat (calor), Redness (rubor), Pain (dolor)

39
Q

What is the approximation skin temp?

A

92 degrees

40
Q

Temperature of Cold pack at time of application + depth of penetration

A

50 degrees

penetration is up to 4 cm, but is most dramatic at 1 cm

effects of cold application last longer than effects of cold application

41
Q

Temperature of hot packs at time of application + penetration depth

A

110 degrees

only penetrates 1-2 cm, and the effects do not last as long as the effects of ice

gradients are higher with cold than hot when compared to normal skin temp.

42
Q

Contraindications/Precaustions for heat

A
• accute inflammation
• fever
• thrombus formation (i.e. after surgery, heat could dilate the blood vessels and release the clot into the heart/lungs)
• skin and lymphatic cancers (we don’t want to increase the metabolic rate in the area
• Peripheral vascular disease (peripheral arterial occlusive disease) (i.e. diabetics with poor circulation, sometimes a lack of hair growth in the area can be observed; the body can’t shunt blood there to cool the ares–> so don’t heat it)
• Radiated Tissue - radiation results in a compromided ability for the patient to handle heat (even x-rays)
• patients with impaired sensation (mentation), or cognitive issues (monitor closely so they don’t get burned)
• medically unstable patients (i.e. low bp (heat lowers b.p. even more))
• Actively infected tissue
43
Q

Contraindication/Precautions for cold

A
• severe hypertension (HTN)
• Cardiac respiratory conditions
• hyperactive sympathetic nervous system
• people with allergic reactions to cold (uticaria)
• peripheral vascular disease
• open wounds
• regenerating peripheral nerve (nerve more brittel with cold application)
• impaired sensation/mentation (because it is hard to get accurate feed back from the patient)
44
Q

How to instruct a patient when ice or heat is being applied

A

1 liability is burns from hotpacks

instruct patiens to give feedback about the application. Instruct that the treatment should be at a comfortable level (watchout for people with egos)

45
Q

General Use of Heat

A
• Before stretching, exercise, joint mobility
• before mobilization, traction, massage
• reduce pain and muscle spasm
• after the acute inflammatory response (to promote healing)
• prior to electrical stim to decrease skin resistance
• promotes relaxation
46
Q

General Use of Cold

A
• After exercising, stretching or joint mobilization
• help to reduce bleeding or edema
• following trauma as a part of rice
• reduce pain and muscle spasm
• reduce spasticity
• cryokinetics
47
Q

Cryotherapy Modalities

A
• ice masssage
• ice packs
• cryocuff
• clod bath immersion
• vapocoolant spray
48
Q

How to treat using ice massage

A

Start with a large area and then start to target a smaller area constantly moving the ice

treat for 5-10 minutes

49
Q

4 stages of sensation when using ice

A
1. cold
3. dull ache
4. numbness
50
Q

How to wrap the ice

A

Bags of Actual Ice - place in a pillow case or a wet towel (a wet towel will improve the conductivity)

51
Q

How to make cold packs

A

water + alcohol in a ziploc, often with a sponge in there

(the blue gell packs also use alcohol to decrease the freezing point allowing the gel to kepp from becomin frozen solid)

52
Q

cool bath immersion

A

67-80 degrees

53
Q

Cold bath immersion

A

55-66 degrees

54
Q

Very Cold Bath Immersion

A

32-54 degrees

55
Q

Vapo coolant spray

A

does not increase joint viscosity and joint stiffness the way that ice does

56
Q

Superficial Heating Modalities

A
• hydrocollator packs (hot packs)
• paraffin wax
• fluido therapy (whirlpool with corn saw dust)
• infrared
• hot bath immersions
• contrast baths (alt hot and cold4 min hot 1-2 min cold (only use cold after severe trauma) these are good for sinus headaches b/c it sesensitises hyper sensitive areas)
57
Q

Treatment with hydrocollator hot packs

A
• 15-20 minute treatment time
• unit should be kept at 160-170 degrees
• packs take 20 minutes to reheat after being out for a while
• *** wrap the hot pack in 6-12 towel layers (each turkish towel side is 3 layers
• use a regular towel as the final towel layer so that it can be washed/changed easily between patients
• use more towels if there is going to be pressure from the person’s body weight
• INSPECT the skin before placing the hotpack, for piercings, open wounds, blood folw etc.
• place a sheet over pack and body if pt is lying prone (helps with conduction)
58
Q

Capillary refill test

A

skin should not stay red when pressed in, should blanch

there is a risk of pressure ulcers with superficial heating modalities

59
Q

Paraffin

A
• 125-127 degrees
• often used to decrease stiffness in the hand or wrist
• have patient wash his or her hands before putting them into the wax
• take off any jewelery
• openwound lesion is a contraindication
• good for wrist extension and thumb opposition
• 5 layers / 5 dips (glove technique)
• can’t exercise during this type of treatment
• treatment time should be 15-20 minutes
• sometimes therapists will put a heat pack over the paraphin
• there is also a paint brush technique where the wax is painted on
60
Q

Fluido Therapy

A
• 115 degrees
• takes 15 minutes to heat up
• inspect skin before treatment
• no open wounds
• exercises can be performed while in the machine
• treatments shouls last 15-20 minutes or less
61
Q

infrared

A
• heat lamp should have no direct contact with body
• luminous (aka near luminous) (8,000 - 15,000 angstroms)
• nonluminous (aka far luminous) 15,000 - 150,000 angstroms)
• the infrared spectrum is 8,000 - 150,000 angstroms
62
Q

Deistance for Luminous infrared

A

24-30 inches usually, but this varies from lamp to lamp so read the instructions for the particular lamp you are working with

63
Q

Distance for nonluminous infrared lamps

A

30-36 inches usually, but read the directions that come with the specific lamp

64
Q

Reasons to use infrared

A
• pt with hypersensitivity to pressure
• large treatment area
• face (wouldn’t put a hot pack on the face) (have the person close their eyes
• constant source of heat where as heat packs loose their heat over time
65
Q

becareful not to dry out wounds

A

wounds don’t heal as well when dried out

66
Q

Law of inverse squares

A

intensity of the infrared waves varies inversely with the square of the distance between the source radiating intensity and the absorbant area

So, as you move the lamp farther away, the intensity decreases a lot more than the distance moved

at half the distance, the light will be 4x more intense.

I = 1/d^2

67
Q

Cosign Law

A

infrared light will propagate best when applied at a right angle to target tissue

if you tilt the light to a 30 degree angle, you will loose 30 percent of its intensity

68
Q

Depth of penetration with infrared

A

The depth of penetrationis greater with hotpacks than it is with infrared

nonluminous infrared lamps penetrate even less

infrared treatments stay concentrated superficually and provide a more intense heating sensation, but do not penetrate as deeply

69
Q

VERY Hot Bath Immersions

A

105-110

usually for localized applications

only use with patients that have good thermal regulation capabilitiess

70
Q

HOT bath immersion

A

100 - 104 degrees

71
Q

WARM hot bath immersion

A

97-99 degrees

warm pool applications

keep the temp lower (92-95) if the pt has poor circulation and or an open wound

Big tanks usually have a temp of 95 degrees

72
Q

.Contrast baths

A

alternate hot and cold baths

hot (3-4 min)

cold (30-60 seconds)

total treatment time should be about 15 minutes

when used on the hands, it is good for sinus infections because it shunts blood away from the face

good for vasodilation and constriction desensitization

73
Q

Ultrasound

A
• deep thermal effect, up to 5 cm deep
• also has non-thermal effects
74
Q

Sound Waves

A

subsonic - 20 Hz or less

sonic - 20 - 20,000 Hz

Ultrasonic - greatere than 20,000 Hz

75
Q

Frequencies for Therepeutic ultrasound

A

1 MHz or 3 MHz

Depth of penetration is greater at 1 Mhz (5cm)

3MHz only has a depth of 2 cm (more effective than a hot pack since a hot pack penetrates 1-2 cm deep, but looses heat over time of treatment and looses intensity the deeper it goes.)

76
Q

The Ultrasound Machine

A

a step up transformer increases the voltage and an oscillating circuit to increase the frequency pass out into the cable that leads to the ultrasound head (transducer) converts electrical energy into another kind of energy

reverse Piezo Electric effect

77
Q

Therapeutic Ultrasound

A
• intensity should be at 0.1 - 2.0 watts/cm2
• the higher end gives a heating effect
78
Q

Measurement for Frequency

A

Hz

79
Q

Measure for intensity

A

W/cm2

80
Q

Ultrasound vs. Heat Packs

A

Depth of penetration is greater with ultrasound

• ultrasound doesn’t stimulate heat receptors on the skin the same way a hot pack does
81
Q

Ultrasound modes

A
• continuous mode
• pulsed mode
82
Q

Duty Cycle %

A

ontime / (ontime + off time)

83
Q

What duty cycle to use for a thermal effect?

A

100%

84
Q

What duty cycle should be used for a non-thermal effect?

A

50%-20%

85
Q

Spatial Average Intensity (continuous)

A

meaning, what you would typically set your machine at for a continuous application

1.5 Watts

86
Q

Temporal Average Intensity

A

spatial avg. intensity x duty cycle

1.5 watts/cm2 x 50% DC = .75 watts/cm2

87
Q

Ultrasound gel

A

Aquasonic gel or mineral oil

enhances movement of sound waves

aka conductive gel

there are some gel disks that have ultrasonic gel also

88
Q

Under water Ultrasound

A

only put the machine in up to the coaxial cable

often used for carpal tunnel or other hand issues

Use slightly higher intensity because some energy is lost in the water when compared to the gel transmission

no direct contact with the body part

89
Q

General considerations when performing ultrasound

A

make firm contact to avoid any airbubbles

use overlapping circles moving in and out of the area

90
Q

Ultrasound Absorption

A

Absorption varies depending on what area you sonate
absorbed well in tissue with lots of collagen and where tissue consistency changes (muscle –> tendon etc.)

works great on frozen shoulders

can use while stretching

91
Q

purpose of non-thermal ultrasound

A

nonthermal facilitates stimulation of cell activity for healing without heating

92
Q

Contraindications for Ultrasound

A

Over organs (stomach, liver, lungs, spleen, bowels, heart, kidneys)
Over the pelvis, abdomen and lumbar (lower back) region in pregnant or potentially pregnant females.
Over highly ultrasound-sensitive organs (eyes, ears, ovaries, testicles, brain, spinal cord)
Over mucous membranes (mouth, nose, rectum/anus, vagina)
On patients with pace-makers on patients with phlebitis, deep venous thromboses
On patients with hemophilia
On patients with spina bifida or surgical laminectomies of the spine
On tissue and/or bone with active infection
Over areas suspected to be cancerous or pre-cancerous
Over de-sensitized (numb, hypoaesthesia) areas of the skin (eg. diabetic neuropathy)
Over open sores or lesions
In the front of the upper neck (thyroid region)
Over areas that have had cortisone injections in the last 30 days

move quickly over spine

93
Q

Thermal Ultrasound effects

A
• increases metabolism
• increases blood flow
• increases soft tissue extensibility
• decreases joint viscosity
94
Q

Physiological Effects of Ultrasound

A
• Mechanical
• Acoustic Streaming and cavitation
• movement of intra and extra-vascular fluids
• increase in cell membrane permeability
• increase in macrophage and mast cell activity
• increase in chemotactic factor activity
• increase in fobroblast activity
95
Q

Cavitation

A

increases the pressure of the tissue because of the increase in sound waves

96
Q

Stable Cavitation

A

Pressure comes in and goes away

this is what we want

like partially blowing a bubble, but not enough for it to take off, just for it to return to its original shape

97
Q

Unstable Cavitation

A

destroys tissue

this result can not be acheived with our ultrasound machines

98
Q

indications for ultrasound use

A
• soft tissue restrictions
• sub-acute and chronic inflammation
• musculoskeletal pain and muscle spasm
• wound healing
• phonophoresis
• treatment time considerations

(ultrasound is not the best choice when the only complaint is pain.)

99
Q

ultrasound in wound care

A

used with hydragel at a very low frequency

also used for debreidment

100
Q

Phonophoresis

A

ultrasound used over topical medication to enhance absorption

may not actually work

attempted frequently with dexamethasone and salicylates

get the rx from the dr. for a bunch and just get approval when you want to use it

101
Q

size of treatment area with ultrasound

A

only good for areas less than 3x the surface area of the head

if the area in need of treatment is larger, not enough of the effect will be concentrated enough to have an effect over such a large area

102
Q

treatment times for ultrasound

A

time based on the size of the area

treatment time is also longer if trying to warm tissue for stretching

treatment time is shorter when the non thermal treatment effects are desired

103
Q

Chart for ultrasound intensities

A

Intensity of 0.5 (1MHz .04) (3MHz .3)

Intensity of 1.0 (1Mhz .2) (3MHz .6)

Intensity of 1.5 (1 Mhz .3) (3Mhz .9)

Intensity of 2.0 (1 Mhz .4) (3 Mhz 1.4)

104
Q

Contracture

A

High intensity and vigerous stretching

used as a way of trying to avoid the need for surgery

otherwise start at a lower intensity

105
Q

Ultrasound Contraindications

A
• pacemaker/implanted device
• metal implants if superficial
• not directly over a joint replacement
• not over the eyes, ears or genetalia
• not over or around a suspected blood clot
• not over a pregnant woman’s uterus
• cancerous tissue/infection
• active bleeding /hemorrhage
• not over the heart
• not over growing epiphyseal plates
• not directly over the spine
• not over the carotid sinus
106
Q

Mechanical Modalities

A

Traction

107
Q

Traction

A

use of external forces to create distraction on soft tissue and joint surfaces

108
Q

Sustained Traction

A

constant pull on the area

109
Q

intermittent traction

A

ie on for 10 second, off for 10 seconds

110
Q

Continuous traction

A

We dont usually do this. This is usually something a person gets in a hospital after a traumatic accident. Usually macheines are set up at the bed

111
Q

Effects of traction

A
• decreases intervertebral pressure
• stretches and elongates the soft tissues
• stimulates the mechanoreceptors
112
Q

Traction sources

A
• manual
• positional
• gravity
• mechanical (hanging weights, pneumatics, motorized)
113
Q

Cervical Manual Traction

A
• Sub occipital with fingertips
• sub occipital with webspace
• Temporal - Parietal with Palms
114
Q

Cervical Mechanical Traction (try manual 1st)

A
• position
• Harness/saunders device
• poundage15-45 lbs (avg. 25 lbs) 10-15% of body weight
115
Q

Vertebral Artery test

A

pre-screen test for cervical traction

supine patient with head tilted back but supported

turns head to each side for 30 second holds on each side

extreme dizeyness, ringing in the ears (tinitus), nausea, pupils dilate, or if person feels like they are going to pass out, then do not do cervical traction

116
Q

A

straps come off occiput part

too much compression on tmj

Saunder’s device is more common now

117
Q

Best position for cervical traction

A

Supine

118
Q

Mechanical Lumbar Traction

A
• Position supine with hips and knees at 90/90 deg.
• lumbar corsetsits with top at umbilicus
• thoracic corset should have the upper edge sitting at the zyphoid process
• the 2 corsets should overlap, there should not be a gap
• poundage 25-50% of body weight
119
Q

Positional Lumbar Traction

A
• people with issues on one side
• lay on side opposite from injury with a wedge or a roll + pillow under waist
• turn toward affected side
• hold for 3-5 minutes
• have someone push down on illiac crest or down on illiac crest + up on shoulder
120
Q

General Traction Considerations

A
• relaxation helps
• pain peripheralization is generally not good, if peripheralized pain becomes more centralized, that is a good result
• bilateral radiation is bad - there could be spinal cord involvement
• other treatments to use as alternatives: patient education, flexibility, strength, posture, body mechanics
121
Q

Indications

A
• nerve root impingement
• disc herniations
• degenerative joint disease
• degenerative disc disease
• spinal hypomobility (limited ROM)
• Paravertebral muscle spasm
• paravertebral pain
122
Q

Evaluate the patient’s pain level at rest

A

if pt has sharp shooting pains at rest, the pain cold be reffered to the back from the visceral organs, esp. the kidneys

123
Q

Traction Contraindications and Precautions

A
• Spinal CA
• Spinal Infections
• Severe RA
• Severe Osteoperosis
• Acute injuries (not immediately after whiplash for instance)
• spinal instability / hyper mobility
• Pregnancy (lumbar)
• Hiatal Hernia (lumbar)
• COPD Patients (lumbar)
• TMJ (Cervical)
• Patient anxiety
• fragile skin
• check for earings, hair and jewelry that could be in the way
124
Q

When to use more flexion durring cervical traction

A

if the lower cervical spine is affected, use more flexion

if the upper cervical spine is affected, use less flexion

125
Q

other things to consider for cervical traction

A

place a lumbar roll under the patient’s knees

keep the pads under the ears when using the traction table.

turn toward the negative setting to pull slower, turn toward the positive setting to pull faster

usually set the machine to do 10 seconds on and 10 seconds off with the “on” poundage set at 20 lbs., and the “off” poundage set at 0-5 lbs

change the height of the table to change the amount of flexion

126
Q

Yoga poses that can create spinal distraction

A

Child’s pose

Cobra pose (for distraction on the anterior side of the spine)

127
Q

External Compression

A
• use of external forces and pressure over extremities to mobilizeextravascular and intervascular fluids
• intermittent pneumatic compression pumps, ace wraps, custom or stock compression garments

-

128
Q

Use of compression relating to edema

A
• (may get swelling in the lower leg when the hip is replaced due to damage of the lymphatic vessels up by the replacement site)
• compression socks can be helpful post op to prevent edema and dvt
• TEDS or anti-emboli socks are often used which provide a very low pressure
• Johhny Copper Compression socks
129
Q

Use of Massage relating to edema

A
• effleurage (work your way from the bottom of the leg to the top while wrapping hand around the circumferance of the leg)
130
Q

Other ways to treat edema

A
• exercise, do heel pumps
• external Water pressure
• contractions created by electrical stimulation
131
Q

Contraindications for the use of compression with edema

A

dont use compression for edema when the edema is caused by esrd end stage renal disease or CHF. The edema in these cases should be managed medically because the organs that are not working properly can’t handle extra fluid

132
Q

Other causes of edema

A

sometimes patients will develop edema when they have low muscle tone (these patients may benefit from compression socks)

133
Q

Hydrostatic pressure

A

if there is high hydrostatic pressure in a capillary, then tissue will flow out of the capillary

134
Q

Osmotic Pressure

A

has to do with chemicals concentrations

proteins in the surrounding tissue will attract fluid to that tissue

135
Q

Edema in malnourished people

A

malnourished people develop swelling because there is not enough osmolarity in the capillaries to hold the fluid in

this should be treated with diet not with compression

136
Q

External compression for use in patients with venous stasis

A
• venous stasis means that there is poor venous return
• this can occur when valves become incompetant over time due to trauma, radiation, obesity, lack of a good muscle calf pump (often when a person has a shuffling gait rather than a heel to toe walk), pregnancy can create extra pressure on the venous system (shld wear compression socks durring the last few months of pregnancy), history of blood clots that have widened the veins and resulted in a residual loss of elasticity

(Plebitis often accompanies venous stasis - inflammation of the vein)

137
Q

Hemosiderian Deposits

A

brown staining because there is such high pressure in the capillaries that they leak dead RBCs

138
Q

Venous stasis wounds and other things associated with venous stasis

A

these wounds heal well, they are the only wound that uses compression to assist healing

• superficial vericosities

hard consistancy of tissues because fibrin and fibrogen form stiffness in interstitial tissue, tissue fibrosis

• dependency pain (pain when the leg is hanging down
• limited ROM
• may want to put the foot of the bed higher than the rest of the body slightly
139
Q

Intermittent Pneumatic Compression Pump

A
• preset to push air into the bladder surrounding the affected area
• measured in mmHGs
• skin inspection
• take the person’s BP, you should NEVER exceed the person’s diastolic pressure becuase that would block arterial blood flow
• girth measurements are recorded in cm
• does the pt have good sensation? can he tell you if there is too much pressure?
• pt should NOT feel his own bounding pulse or tingling/numbness
• put a cotton stocking on 1st and then the nylon sleve to keep the nylon sleve clean
140
Q

mmHg to use for intermittent Pneumatic compression pump for lower extremity

A

30-60 mmHg

141
Q

mmHg to use for intermittent Pneumatic compression pump for upper extremity

A

20-50 mmHg

142
Q

compression to rest ratio to use for intermittent Pneumatic compression pump

A

3 to 1

pt should do active contractions during the rest period

143
Q

ending treatment with Pneumatic compression pump

A

put on an ace wrap or compression sock to maximize the benefit to the patient after the treatment has ended

144
Q

Lymphedema

A

often there is a complete blockage of the lymphatic system

Petrosage - massage to try to open the lymph system

Although this cannot be cured, areas of chronic edema are prone to infection, so the therapy keeps it moving

145
Q

Indications for IPC and other forms of compression

A
• post traumatic edema
• edema due to lymphatic dysfunction
• residual limb shrinkage (amputee, shape stump for prosthesis)
• prevention of thrombus (if already present, then stay away)
• tissue remodelling after burns/trauma (prevents hypertrophi8c scarring)
• orthostatic hypertension
146
Q

Contraindications for compression

A
• arterial insufficiency
• infections/active cancerous tissue
• thrombus present
• completely obstructed lymphatics
• systemic edema due to CHF or ESRD
147
Q

Treatment time for compression

A

1-2 hours ideally, if only 20 min at facility, use ace wraps and compression socks to maintain any therapeutic effect