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1

what is genetics

the study of heredity or the study of biological information

2

what do we use as our experimental model organism

Drosophila melanogaster

3

what is the life cycle of a drosophila

embryo
first instar larva
second instar larva
third instar larva
pupa
adult

4

what on a virgin will you find on their abdomen

meconium

5

what principles of genetic did Mendel discover

law of segregation
law of independent assortment

6

what was the first scientist to combine data collection, analysis, and theory to discover the basic principles of genetics

gregor mendel

7

why did mendel use peas in his experiment

breeding could be done by cross fertilization or selfing
large # of progeny in short period of time
traits remained constant in crosses within a line

8

what determines traits

genes
one from mother
one from father

9

each gene comes in alternative forms which are called

alleles

10

what is a phenotype

an observable characteristic

11

what is a genotype

a pair of alleles in an individual

12

what is an homozygote

two identical alleles

13

what is a heterozygote

two different alleles

14

what are the parent phenotypes of a hybrid cross

one is homo dom and homo recess

15

what is the F1 phenotype of a hybrid cross

all one phenotype
hetero dom

16

what is a simple way to visualize the segregation and random union of alleles

punnett square

17

what can reveal an unknown genotype

a testcross

18

in a monohybrid what is the ratio of phenotypes for the F1 progeny

3:1

19

when a true breeding dihybrid crosses, what is the F1 of this cross

heterozygote
RrYy

20

what is the phenotypic ratio of the F2 generation in a dihybrid

9:3:3:1

21

in the F1 dihybrid produces four possible gametes in what kind of ratio

1:1:1:1
YR
Yr
yR
yr

22

what is the product rule

probability of two independent events occurring together is the product of their individual probabilities

23

if both parents are true bred in dihybrid testcross what is the possible F1

one possible outcome
heterozygote dom

24

if one parent is true bred and one parent is heterozygous for one trait, what does the F1 generation look like

two types of F1 phenotypes

25

if one parent is true bred and one parent is heterozygous for both traits what does the F1 looks like

4 products of F1 generation
shows all four phenotypes

26

what does a chi square test measure

how well the observed results conform the expected results

27

what is a null hypothesis

observed values are no different from expected values

28

what is needed to do a chi square

total number of progeny
how many classes of progeny
number of offspring observed in each class

29

how to find degrees of freedom

df= n- 1
n= number of classes

30

where is DNA packed

into highly condensed chromosomes