Testicular Function Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Testicular Function Deck (24):
1

What are the two major functions of reproductive organs?

Gametogenesis

Secretion of hormones 

2

Which hormones are released by the male and female reproductive organs?

Male: testosterone from Leydig cells

Female: oestrogen and progesterone from theca and granulosa cells

3

When does spermatogenesis begin in the male?

Puberty

4

Describe spermatogenesis?

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5

Describe what happens in the mitotic stage of spermatogensis?

Spermatogonium > mitotic division > 2 spermatogonia

One remains a spermatogonium (maintain germ cell line)

One becomes a primary spermatocyte (produce speramtozoa)

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6

Describe what happens in the meiotic stage of spermatogenesis?

Primary spermatocyte > first meiotic division > secondary spermatocyte > second meiotic division > spermatids 

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7

Descrinbe what happens in the packaging stage of spermatogenesis?

Spermatids mature into spermatozoa (not fully mature yet)

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8

Describe the process of oogenesis?

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9

Describe the mitotic stage of oogenesis?

Oogonium > mitotic division prior to birth > primary oocytes 

 

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10

Describe the stages of oogenesis that have occurred prior to birth?

OOgonium > mitoitc division > primary oocytes

All primary oocytes present at birth

Arrested in first meiotic division 

11

What happens to the primary oocytes?

At puberty, one reaches maturity > enlarged primary oocyte > first meiotic divison completed > secondary oocyte (ovulated) and polar body

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12

Describe what happens to the secondary oocyte and polary body?

Secondary oocyte > fertilisation > second meioptic division > mature ovum and second polar body

First polar body > meoitic division > second polar bodies > degenerate 

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13

When do the first and second meitoic divisions occur in oogenesis?

First: prior to ovulation

Second: after fertilisation 

14

Describe thre hormonal regulation of reproduction?

Hypothalamus: GnRH > Anterior pituitary: LH and FSH > Gonads: sex steroids, inhibin and activin 

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15

Describe the anatomy and function of the seminiferous tubules?

Sertoli cells: surround and support sperm

Spermatogoina > sperm

Leydig cells: produce testosterone

Capillaries

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16

Describe the hormonal regulation of spermatogenesis?

GnRH > LH > Leydig cells > testosterone > sex characteristics

GnRH > FSH > Sertoli cells > spermatocyte maturation 

Inhibin feedback 

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17

Describe the effects of testosterone before birth?

Masculinises reproductive tract and exteral genitalia

Promotes descent of testes into scrotum 

18

Describe the effects of testosterone in sex-specific tissues?

Promotes growth and maturation of reproductive system

Spermatogenesis

19

Describe the secondary sexual effects of testosterone?

Hair growth

Deep voice

Muscle growth

Body configuration 

20

Describe the non-reproductive actions of testosterone?

protein anabolic effects

Bone grwoth

Closure of epiphyses

Sebaceous gland secretions 

21

Describe the composition of semen?

Sperm

Mucous from bulbourethral glands

Water 

Buffers from prostate and bulbo-urethral glands

Fructose from seminal vesicles
Citric acid from prostate
Vitamin C from seminal vesicles
Carnitine from epididymis

Enzymes from seminal vesicles and prostate

Zinc 

Prostaglandins from seminal vesicles 

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22

What is the function of each of the following components of semen:

a) mucous?

b) buffers?

c) enzymes?

d) prostaglandins?

a) Mucous: lubricant

b) Buffers: neutralise acidic vaginal environment 

c) Enzymes: clot semen in vagina, then liquefy clot

d) Prostaglandins: smooth muscle contraction 

23

Describe the negative feedback in the male reproductive system?

Testosterone inhibits hypothalamus (GnRH) and anterior pituitary (LH)

Inhibin inhibits anterior pituitary (FSH)

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24

What is andropause?

Lower levels of testosterone in old age

Affects about 50% men over 50