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1

Anticoagulant for general Haematology

Sodium, Potassium, EDTA (ethylendiaminetetraaceticacid)

2

How does anticoagulation work?

irreversible binding of ca ions

3

Heparin

used for plasma anticoagulation via antithrombin lll - blocks fibrinogen - fibrin

4

Anticoagulant for blood clotting parameters

Na2Citrate - reversible Ca2 binding

5

Blood Smear anticoagulant

Na2Citrate - least damage to blood

6

Evaluation of perfusion

-Crt
-colour mucous mem.
-pulse strength
-Bp

7

Evaluation of hydration

-skin tugor
-muc. mem.
-sunken eyes
-skin around oral, anal cavity
-bw changes
- urine output

8

Evaluation of volume disturbances

-Clinical signs
-Pcv, Ht
-Hb cc
-plasma Tp, Alb
-MCV

9

Pcv,Ht methods

-Mikrohematokrit - microcapill.,centrifuge,check ht scale
-Handheld hct meter- species spec, one drop, uses reflectance
-automated cell counter - mcv/number

10

Additional info. after centrifug. blood

-colour
-- red - haemolysis
--white - hyperlipid.
--dark yellow - hyperbilirubinaem.
-- chocolate brown - methaem.
-buffy coat
--wbcs
-microfilaria larvae

11

Samples for osmolality invest.

hep. plasma , serum

12

Osmolality methods

-mathematical
-- =2(Na+K)+urea+glucose
-osmometer
-measures freezing point compared to water

13

Electrolyte invest. anticoag.

heparinised full blood - since others interfere with the ion cc

14

Ion cc method

using ion selective electrodes

15

Inorganic p measurement

spectrophotometric from serum heparinised sample

16

resp. function invest. sample

-Ca-equilibriated, Li-heparinised syringe
-arterial samples needed - no air contamination
--astrup method

17

Method of resp. func. invest.

ionselective electrodes to measure ph & CO2
based on these Hco3- and ABE and others are calculated

18

routinely used acid base parameters

-ph - 7.35-7.45
- pCo2 - 40mmHg
-HCo3- 21-24mmol/l
-ABE - +-3.5mmol/l
-TCo2 - 23-30mmol/l
-SBE - +-3mmol/l

19

Parameters for blood gas analysis

-pO2 - 88-118mmHg
-pCO2 - 35-45 mmHg
-SAT - v:75-80% a:90-100%
-FiO2 - 20,9% >0.5 risk of O2 toxicity

20

Tests performed by side of animal in case of haemostasis analysis

-check for skin abnormalities anaemia, petechia, ecchymosis,
-cap. resistance
-bleeding time
- app. of first fibrin strand
- app. of clot
-clot retraction time

21

Tests for CT

-fibrin strand - 1-2 min
-CT on watch glass - 7-15min
-CT in plastic syringe - 10-12 min
-CT in glass tube - 4-5min
-CT in act - containing SiO2 - activates factor 12 - 3min

22

Platelet count test

-imp. if Bt is inc. use Na,K EDTA blood
-put sample in saline sol. and let sediment then put in bürker chamber
-estimate using blood smear
-automated cell counter - aggregates can be taken as larger cells

23

Phys. platelet count

200-800 *10^9/l

24

Reagent for PT

contains rat uterus as a tissue factor

25

PT method

using a coagulometer

26

Phys. Pt

10-15sec

27

Factors in Pt

7,10,5,2,1,13

28

APTT contsins

as platelet factor 3

29

Phys APTT

20-30 sec

30

Factors in APTT

9 , 11 , 8 , 10 , 5 , 2 , 1 , 13