Flashcards in Text Analysis (Paper 1) Deck (29):
possible deductions from a text with many adjectives
You don't have to understand to word to identify it as an adjective, verb and noun. The text is descriptive and not informative, which could mean its is there to entertain.
layout of one paragraph
• Point - one answer to the essay
• Word choice
• Explain their effect, or why they were chosen
• Relevance to the essay
list all (12) purposes of writing
purpose of text: persuade
examples: propaganda, advertisements, speeches (some)
1 side of the argument: (very pushy)
purpose of text: argue
examples: debate, opinion editorials
2 sides of the argument: (a little pushy)
less emotive lang. & repetition
no personal pronouns (selling opinion as facts)
ethos & logos is more serious
purpose of text: advise
examples: health/security brochures/leaflet, advice columns in magazines, letters
all sides of the argument (guiding)
SOFT language (might, could, consider)
inform, explain, describe
purpose of text: inform
examples: news articles, textbooks, travel guides, ted talks
clear language (jargon)
ethos (trusted sources)
NO(!) descriptive writing (adjectives, poetic language, it is boring)
purpose of text: explain
examples: instructions, manuals, cook books
simple and shorter sentences
organisational features, such as numbering, bullet pointing
images and bullet points
purpose of text: describe
examples: narratives, fictional, travel writing, (auto) biographies (?)
massive amounts of adjectives, metaphors, smilies etc (poetic language)
purpose of text: analyse
examples: scientific paper, essay, paper 1
jargon (words that are subject specific)
a lot of detail
purpose of text: review
examples: review (products, movies, cheaters, books, travels, events music)
Register: depending on the medium and the audience
tries to combine writing to inform and writing to entertain. There the long vage can be playful
mix of facts and opinion"
purpose of text: comment
examples: commentary, opinion editorials, internet (blogs, Facebook)
Register: depends on the audience and medium
almost no facts
can have personal pronouns "
purpose of text: explore
features: talking about a topic fiction
language poetic, devices
purpose of text: imagine
examples: all fiction writing, creative writing
making stuff up
language is poetic, techniques, descriptions"
purpose of text: entertain
examples: both fiction & non-fiction, review writing, fiction texts, song lyrics, magazine articles
make people have fun reading
language: humour, playfulness, puns, sarcasm"
what goes into a introduction?
State the author and title, its topic and text type (article, poem, appeal, narrative, etc), and the date it was written or published, if known (context?). Identify any major themes and the purpose.
Form a thesis statement.
what can you discuss in body paragraphs?
• audience; contexts; purpose
• point of view (narrator, third-person, bias, etc.)
• diction (word choice)
• imagery and figurative language
• syntax (structure of sentences)
what goes into a conclusion?
• How has the text fulfilled its purpose?
• How was it successful?
• end with something original
Don't be vague and say “the two texts have many similarities and differences” – this is obvious. Don’t discuss if you think a text was good or bad, clear or confusing. End with a few sentences that are relevant, but that add something *original*.
essentials to discuss
effect of vague language
lowers the credibility of the author --> typical for tabloid
effect of emotive language
tries to persuade reader, attracts attention, (sensationalism?), entertains, makes it personal and therefore more believable (informal level makes it more human, like talking to a friend) --> tabloid?
effect of euphemisms
make it less formal, attempting to escape responsibility?, pun?, euphemistic language misleads our understanding trying to spare our feelings about reality. A euphemism may displace the normal word for something, whereupon it become subject to euphemism.
- detrumentality is reduced
typical elements in an advertisement
Problem and Benefit
Unique selling proposition (USP)
Attention, Interest, Desire, Action (AIDA)
Testimonial - celebrities
Association - linking products with values
Ad hominem (attacking a person rather than the argument)
types of advertisements
Anti-Ads - against other companies
Philanthropic ads - generous and benevolent
Culture Jamming (e.g. against consumerism)
Parody and Pastiche — the art of mocking someone or something by imitating them of their style (parody) or use a particular text genre holding up a mirror to mock and question our cultural values by also imitating
elements of a tabloid
alliteration in the headline
short/simple words and sentences
personal detail (superficial)
• to entertain
• Use of puns
• Use of alliteration (consonant)/assonance (vowel)
• Exaggeration for effect
• personal pronouns
• Colloquial language (chatty)
• Informal names used
• Short, snappy sentences
• Heightened language (over the top)
• Brand names
• Innuendo - adjectives often carry sexual overtones
• Focus upon appearance
• Frequent use of elision e.g. won’t, don’t. This is another informal technique.
• purpose to inform
• More formal
• Metaphors rather than puns
• Rhetorical questions
• More complex sentences (look for sentences separated by lots of commas, semi-colons etc.)
• Puns sometimes used, although more subtle
• Descriptions of people tends to relate to personality or position in society
• Politician’s comments often included, with a commentary by the journalist
elements of opinion editorials
1. Introduction, body and conclusion like other news stories
2. An objective explanation of the issue, especially complex issues
3. A timely news angle
4. Opinions from the opposing viewpoint that refute directly the same issues the writer addresses
5. The opinions of the writer delivered in a professional manner. Good editorials engage issues, not personalities and refrain from name-calling or other petty tactics of persuasion.
6. Alternative solutions to the problem or issue being criticized. Anyone can gripe about a problem, but a good editorial should take a pro-active approach to making the situation better by using constructive criticism and giving solutions.
7. A solid and concise conclusion that powerfully summarizes the writer's opinion. Give it some punch.