Text Analysis (Paper 1) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Text Analysis (Paper 1) Deck (29):
1

possible deductions from a text with many adjectives

You don't have to understand to word to identify it as an adjective, verb and noun. The text is descriptive and not informative, which could mean its is there to entertain.

2

layout of one paragraph

• Point - one answer to the essay
• Examples
• Word choice
• Techniques
• Explain their effect, or why they were chosen
• Relevance to the essay

3

list all (12) purposes of writing

Persuade (non-fiction)
Argue (non-fiction)
Advise (non-fiction)
Analyse (non-fiction)
Review (non-fiction)
Comments (non-fiction)
Explore (fiction)
Imagine (fiction)
Entertain (both)
Inform (non-fiction)
Explain (non-fiction)
Describe (both)

4

purpose of text: persuade

examples: propaganda, advertisements, speeches (some)

features:
1 side of the argument: (very pushy)
imperative
hyperbole
superlative
emotive language
personal pronouns
exclamation marks
repetition

5

purpose of text: argue

examples: debate, opinion editorials

features:
2 sides of the argument: (a little pushy)
euphemisms
metaphors
less emotive lang. & repetition
no personal pronouns (selling opinion as facts)
ethos & logos is more serious

6

purpose of text: advise

examples: health/security brochures/leaflet, advice columns in magazines, letters

features
all sides of the argument (guiding)
SOFT language (might, could, consider)
no imperatives
choices
information
comparisons
bullet-pointed lists
more personal
inform, explain, describe

7

purpose of text: inform

examples: news articles, textbooks, travel guides, ted talks

features:
clear language (jargon)
factual (logos)
ethos (trusted sources)
NO(!) descriptive writing (adjectives, poetic language, it is boring)

8

purpose of text: explain

examples: instructions, manuals, cook books

features:
simple and shorter sentences
straight forward
organisational features, such as numbering, bullet pointing
order
imperatives
not emotive
(boring)
images and bullet points

9

purpose of text: describe

examples: narratives, fictional, travel writing, (auto) biographies (?)

features:
massive amounts of adjectives, metaphors, smilies etc (poetic language)
detail
senses

10

purpose of text: analyse

examples: scientific paper, essay, paper 1

features:
register: formal
quotations
jargon (words that are subject specific)
a lot of detail
evidence
no opinion
only factual

11

purpose of text: review

examples: review (products, movies, cheaters, books, travels, events music)

features:
Register: depending on the medium and the audience
tries to combine writing to inform and writing to entertain. There the long vage can be playful
mix of facts and opinion"

12

purpose of text: comment

examples: commentary, opinion editorials, internet (blogs, Facebook)

features:
Register: depends on the audience and medium
almost no facts
opinion only
can have personal pronouns "

13

purpose of text: explore

examples:

features: talking about a topic fiction
language poetic, devices

14

purpose of text: imagine

examples: all fiction writing, creative writing

features:
making stuff up
language is poetic, techniques, descriptions"

15

purpose of text: entertain

examples: both fiction & non-fiction, review writing, fiction texts, song lyrics, magazine articles

features:
make people have fun reading
language: humour, playfulness, puns, sarcasm"

16

what goes into a introduction?

State the author and title, its topic and text type (article, poem, appeal, narrative, etc), and the date it was written or published, if known (context?). Identify any major themes and the purpose.

Form a thesis statement.

17

what can you discuss in body paragraphs?

• audience; contexts; purpose
• point of view (narrator, third-person, bias, etc.)
• tone
• diction (word choice)
• imagery and figurative language
• syntax (structure of sentences)

18

what goes into a conclusion?

• How has the text fulfilled its purpose?
• How was it successful?
• end with something original

Don't be vague and say “the two texts have many similarities and differences” – this is obvious. Don’t discuss if you think a text was good or bad, clear or confusing. End with a few sentences that are relevant, but that add something *original*.

19

essentials to discuss

PURPOSE
AUDIENCE
LANGUAGE
LAYOUT

20

effect of vague language

lowers the credibility of the author --> typical for tabloid

21

effect of emotive language

tries to persuade reader, attracts attention, (sensationalism?), entertains, makes it personal and therefore more believable (informal level makes it more human, like talking to a friend) --> tabloid?

22

effect of euphemisms

make it less formal, attempting to escape responsibility?, pun?, euphemistic language misleads our understanding trying to spare our feelings about reality. A euphemism may displace the normal word for something, whereupon it become subject to euphemism.
- detrumentality is reduced

23

typical elements in an advertisement

Context
SUPERLATIVES
Slogan
Brand
Image
Logo
Target Audience
Problem and Benefit
Bandwagon Effect
Unique selling proposition (USP)
Attention, Interest, Desire, Action (AIDA)
Testimonial - celebrities
Association - linking products with values
Signature
Ad hominem (attacking a person rather than the argument)
Pathos
Logos
Ethos

24

types of advertisements

Anti-Ads - against other companies
Philanthropic ads - generous and benevolent
Culture Jamming (e.g. against consumerism)
Parody and Pastiche — the art of mocking someone or something by imitating them of their style (parody) or use a particular text genre holding up a mirror to mock and question our cultural values by also imitating
Negative Ads

25

elements of a tabloid

alliteration in the headline
sensationalist/emotional language
short/simple words and sentences
personal detail (superficial)
quotes/comments
big headlines
large photos

26

tabloid language

• to entertain
• persuasive
• Informal
• Use of puns
• repetition
• Use of alliteration (consonant)/assonance (vowel)
• Exaggeration for effect
• personal pronouns
• Slang
• Colloquial language (chatty)
• Informal names used
• Short, snappy sentences
• Heightened language (over the top)
• Brand names
• Innuendo - adjectives often carry sexual overtones
• Focus upon appearance
• Frequent use of elision e.g. won’t, don’t. This is another informal technique.

27

broadsheet language

• purpose to inform
• More formal
• Metaphors rather than puns
• Rhetorical questions
• More complex sentences (look for sentences separated by lots of commas, semi-colons etc.)
• Puns sometimes used, although more subtle
• Statistics
• Descriptions of people tends to relate to personality or position in society
• Politician’s comments often included, with a commentary by the journalist

28

elements of opinion editorials

1. Introduction, body and conclusion like other news stories
2. An objective explanation of the issue, especially complex issues
3. A timely news angle
4. Opinions from the opposing viewpoint that refute directly the same issues the writer addresses
5. The opinions of the writer delivered in a professional manner. Good editorials engage issues, not personalities and refrain from name-calling or other petty tactics of persuasion.
6. Alternative solutions to the problem or issue being criticized. Anyone can gripe about a problem, but a good editorial should take a pro-active approach to making the situation better by using constructive criticism and giving solutions.
7. A solid and concise conclusion that powerfully summarizes the writer's opinion. Give it some punch.

29

four types of editorials will:

1. Explain or interpret: Editors often use these editorials to explain the way the newspaper covered a sensitive or controversial subject. School newspapers may explain new school rules or a particular student-body effort like a food drive.
2. Criticize: These editorials constructively criticize actions, decisions or situations while providing solutions to the problem identified. Immediate purpose is to get readers to see the problem, not the solution.
3. Persuade: Editorials of persuasion aim to immediately see the solution, not the problem. From the first paragraph, readers will be encouraged to take a specific, positive action. Political endorsements are good examples of editorials of persuasion.
4. Praise: These editorials commend people and organizations for something done well. They are not as common as the other three.