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Flashcards in Thalamus tract course Deck (23)
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What are the standard grouping of the thalamic nuclei?

Non specific



Motor planning & relay control

Sensory relay



What are the nonspecific nuclei?

midline nuc. intraminar nuc. (centromedian; CM)


What are the associative nuclei?

dorsomedial nuc. (DM) pulvinar nuc. lateral posterior nuc. (LP)


What are the limbic nuclei?

anterior nuc. lateral dorsal nuc. (LD)


What are the motor planning and relay control nuclei?

ventral anterior nuc. (VA) ventral lateral nuc. (VL)


What are the sensory relay nuclei?

ventral posterior lateral nuc. (VPL) ventral posterior medial nuc. (VPM) lateral geniculate nuc. (LGN) medial geniculate nuc. (MGN)


What is the Gatekeeper nuclei?

reticular nuc.


What is the input and output of the non specific nuclei?

arousal (cortical excitability)


input- spinal cord and brainstem reticular formation

output- widespread, diffuse projection to cerebral cortex and basal ganglia


What is the input and output of the associative nuclei?

dorsomedial nucleus - affect, emotion, motivation, behavior, olfactory interpretation


Input - amygdala, entorhinal cortex


output - prefrontal association complex


What are the affects of a dorsalmedial lesion?

may relieve anxiety states. Affects of DM lesion parallel affects of prefrontal lobotomy (which disrupts prefrontal connections to thalamus. Also, DM degenerates after prefrontal lobotomy


What is Karsakoffs syndrome?

Bilateral medial degeneration of thalamus in chronic alcoholism accompanied by  thiamine  deficiency 


Effects include anterograde amnesia in addition to behavioral problems


What is the input and outputs of the associative (lateral posterior nucleus)nuclei?

lateral posterior nucleus – visual integration, interpretation & response


input - superior colliculus and pretectum 


output superior posterior association complex 


What is the input of associative (pulvinar) nuclei?

pulvinar  nucleus – visual integration, interpretation & response 


Input- retina, pretectum, superior colliculus and visual association areas 


output- ocipital, parietal, temporal association cortex


What is the input/output of the limbic (anterior nucleus)?

anterior  nucleus – relay in Papez circuit of emotion and memory


input-mammillary nucleus of hypothalamus (via mammillothalamic tract) 


Output- cingulate gyrus


What is the input/output of th elimbic (lateral dorsal nucleus)?

lateral dorsal nucleus (LD)  – limbic functions including emotion


input -hippocampal formation


output-cingulate gyrus


What is the input/output of the motor planning and control relay(ventral anterior (VA) and ventral lateral(VL)) nucleus? 

ventral  anterior (VA) nucleus & ventral lateral nucleus (VL)


input- basal nuclei & cerebellum 


Output- premotor& supplementary motor cortex


What is the input/output for sensory relay (ventral posterior lateral nucleus) ? 

§ventral posterior lateral nucleus (VPL) – descriminative touch, conscious proprioception, pain & temperature, limbs & trunk


input- conscious somatosensory from trunk and limbs

ouput-somatosensory cortex for limbs and trunk


What is the input/output for sensory relay (Ventral posterior medial nucleus)?

ventral posterior medial nucleus (VPM) – descriminative touch, conscious proprioception, pain & temperature, and taste from face-head


input-conscious trigeminothalamic & gustatory pathways

output-somatosensory cortex for face + anterior insula (taste) 


What is the input/output for sensory relay(lateral geniculate) nucleus?

lateral geniculate nucleus -   relay in primary visual perception


input - optic tract


output- primary visual cortex 


What is the input/output for for the sensory relay (medial geniculate) nucleus? 

medial geniculate nucleus  - relay in primary auditory perception


input- inferior colliculus (via brachium)

output - primary auditory cortex


What is the input/output for the gatekeeper (reticular) nucleus?

reticular nucleus – regulate thalamocortical-corticothalamic communication


input -thalamocortical and corticothalamic collaterals

output- thalmic nuclei and cortex 


Where does thalamocortical and coticothalamic pathways pass?

What is the function of the function of the reticular nucleus?

Thalamocortical and corticothalamic pathways pass through and communicate with the reticular nucleus neurons via axon collaterals

Reticular nucleus probably modulates (regulates) the exchange of information between the thalamus and cortex


What may reticular fibers may be indicated in what pathophisiology?