Flashcards in The American West -The Early Settlement Of The West Deck (32):
Who were the plains Indians?
Many different American tribes who lived in the great plains
What were bands?
Groups within a tribe that would help each other to survive
What were nations and give an example of one ?
Very large tribes e.g The Sioux
What was the role of a chief in plain Indian society?
1. To lead negotiations with other tribes
2. To guide a band in finding enough to eat and protecting the band from danger
What was the role of a council in plain Indian society?
1. To declare war on another tribe/negotiate peace with the other side when necessary
2. To listen to everyone's opinion (in a tribe)
What skills did chiefs need to have and give an example of a few famous chiefs?
1. Great leadership skills
3. Spiritual power
4. Good warriors/hunters
- Red cloud
- sitting bull
Brotherhoods were groups that...
- Trained young men in fighting skills
- taught young men about the tribes beliefs and values
Who disagreed with red clouds peace treaty during the war against white Americans?
1. Sitting Bull
2. Crazy horse
3. Many plain Indians
What was the role of women in plain Indian society?
- feeding and clothing their families
- looking after their families possessions
- processing buffalo meat and turning them into products that could be traded
What did the Plain indians develop, in order to survive?
1. Amazing hore-riding and archery skills to hunt buffalos
2. A travelling lifestyle: used tipis (move-able tents) and travois (to help move belongings)
3. Skills to use every part of the buffalo
4. Respect for the animals they depended on (e.g. they didnt waste buffalo parts on things they didnt need)
What were lodges?
Circular buildings, made of earth and timber logs, that would be inhabited by the Plain Indians during harsh winters
Give 3 parts of a buffalo and their uses?
1. Dung - fuel
2. Bladder - food bag
3. Hooves - glue/tools
Why were horses important for the Plain Indians?
They needed them to hunt buffalo and to travel across the Plains to search for food
What did the Plain Indians believe about nature and land?
1. They believed everything in nature had a spirit that would sometimes help humans and that these spirits could be contacted through 'vision quests', guided by spirit animals
2. They believed land was sacred
Describe two ways that the Plain Indians would carry out raids?
1. They'd only go ahead with a raid f it looked like it would work and they would escape as quickly as they could if there was opposition
2. Only selected brotherhoods would go on a raid to minimise losses
What was a 'counting coup'?
A special type of fighting in which a warrior would attempt to hit or touch an enemy and get away again without being injured/killed. Success gained the warrior a lot of respect and honour from the rest of the tribe
Why did the White Americans believe that the Plain Indians shouldnt have the land?
1. They believed they were savages who did nothing to improve the land and just lived off the resources that the land naturally produced
2. They believed they (the americans) had better rights to the land as they were trying to improve it e.g. by poughing it for farming and digging up its materials for manufacturing
What was the US governments approaches to tackle the conflict between the White Americans and the Plain Indians and why were the approaches a problem?
1. Keeping the two groups separated
2. Encouraging the Plain Indians to become like white settlers
- it was a probem because keeping them separated made it hard for the Plain Indians to become like white settlers
What was the permanent indian frontier?
'All that Part of the US west of the Mississipi River and not within the states of Missouri and Louisiana, or the territory of Arkansas'
What was westward expansion and what were the consequences of it?
When White Americans had started to gain more land after winning wars, such as the war in Mexico 1848,
- Consequences: Instead of the Indian Frontier dividing the American Indians in the West from the White Americans in the East, American Indian lands were now in the middle of the USA
What was the Indian Appropriatons act (1851)
An act that provided the government money to pay for the moving Plain Indians onto reserved land (reservations)
Why did the government want the Plain Indians to move onto reserved land (reservations)
1. It moved American Indians away from land that white people wanted to use
2. By reducing the amount of land Plains Indians had available for hunting, the gov hoped it would encourage them to take up farming and live like white people
What factors encouraged Migration West?
1. Economic crisis in the East
2. Rich Farmland in the West (Oregon)
3. The Oregon trail (a practical way to travel to the West)
4. Gold rush of 1849
5. The belief that Americans had to populate all areas of America (Manifest destiny)
What were the main problems of the Oregon trail?
1. Getting stuck
2. Falling Ill
3. Running out of supplies
What happened to the Donner Party
They took a shortcut and got lost, which caused half of them to die of starvation
Which group successfully got the west without using the Oregon Trail?
The mormons (led by Brigham Young )
Why were farming conditions good n California?
1. Californias mild climate and fertile soils were excellent for growing spring wheat
What problems did the Plain Indians face in the Great Plains?
1. Low Rainfall: too dry for crops
2. Few trees: no timber for houses/fences
3. Climate extremes: Very hot summers/very cold winters (causing crops to shrivel in summer heat)
4. Poughing: Soil was hard to plough due to deep tangled grass roots
5. Grasshoppers: would pollute water sources and turn everything brown
Why was there tension between the Plain Indians and the White Americans?
1. The white americans had racist views about the Plains Indians
2. The White Americans feared the Plain Indians
3. The White Americans disrupted the Plains Indians way of life
What were a few agreements in the Fort Laramie treaty (1851)?
The Plain Indians would :
- end the fighting between the tribes
- allow migrants to travel through their land in safety
The US gov would:
- Protect the Plain Indians from white Americans
- Pay the tribes 50,000 dollars yearly if the treaty terms were kept to
What were problems with the Fort Laramie treaty (1851)
1. Translation difficulties
2. The Sioux had said that their hunting land is larger than the land shown in the treaty