Flashcards in The Angevin Empire, 1154- Deck (43):
Who was Hugh Bigod
Earl of Norfolk
Who was Gilbert Foliot
Bishop of Hereford and later London
When did Stephen I die
25 October 1154
Where and when was Henry II crowned King of England?
Westminster Abby, 19 December 1154
What did Henry's charter declare shortly after his accession?
That all concessions made to barons between his grandfather's death in 1135 and his accession invalid
How did Henry compromise with barons in England in his reign?
Henry would grant the same lands back to barons who surrendered their lands and titles to Henry, and accepted Henry as their feudal lord
How old was Henry when he ascended the throne?
What was Henry's first step in demilitarising England?
Ordering expulsion of all Flemish mercenaries in the country
What had Winchester determined regarding adulterine castles
They should be demolished, regardless of the allegiance of the nobles which built and held them
What year did Henry commence his military campaign to decommission civil war earldoms and adulterine castles
1155, and continued for 2 years
What 3 barons continued to defy royal authority after 1155's Great Council?
William of Aumale, Roger FitzMiles, Hugh of Mortimor
What action did henry take against William of Aumale?
In Febraury 1155, he led a host northward to York, resulting in Williams' surrender of Scarborough castle
Who persuaded Roger FitzMiles to surrender his adulterine castles
Gilbert Foliot, Roger's cousin
When did Hugh of Mortimor submit his castles to Henry?
In July 1155, after Henry had laid siege to his castles
How did Henry weaken the House of Blois in 1155?
He seized six castles belonging to Henry of Blois, Stephen's brother
Who did Henry appoint as his chief justiciars after his accession?
Robert of Beaumont and Richard of Luci
When had Henry's co-chief justiciars defected to the Angevins from Stephen?
Assess how Robert of Beaumont and Richard of Luci served Henry II
They were loyal and productive; building alliances between the crown and tenants-in-chief. They were also central in the revival of the Exchequer, judicial reform and providing Henry troops for French campaigns
When and why did Richard of Luci become sole chief justiciar
After death of Robert, 1168
How did Richard of Luci help the crown in 1173-4
Played crucial role in defeating a baronial revolt in these two years
Who was Nigel, Bishop of Ely
Henry's High Treasurer, nephew of Robert of Beaumont
Assess the effectiveness of Nigel as High Treasurer
His extensive knowledge of the Exchequer under Henry I enabled him to restore the office rapidly and by 1156 royal finances were being recorded in pipe rolls
Who replaced Nigel as high treasurer and when?
His son, Richard FitzNeal in 1164
Assess how Richard FitzNeal served the crown
In 1177 he wrote a treatise of the practises of the English Exchequer and ultimately helped bring about economic stability in England
What was the Chancellor's job?
He controlled the chancery, the king's writing office and acted as the king's private secretary
Who did Henry appoint as his Chancellor
Assess Becket's role as Chancellor
he quickly established a close friendship with Henry as a skilled advisor and diplomat. He was central in Henry's foreign policy, acting on his behalf to the court of Louis VII. In 1159, he commanded an Angevin army during Henry's campaign in Toulose
When did Henry nominate Beckett archbishop of Canterbury?
List Henry's 6 financial reforms
Restoration of the county farm
Revival of the geld tax
Restoration of feudal hierarchy
Cartae Baronum - inspection of tenants-in-chief (vassals)
Recoinage and centralisation of royal mints
What is the term for the feudal obligations of vassals to supply the crown with knight service
What is the term for the reversion of land back to the crown after its landholder had died
In the first decade of his reign, name 3 efforts Henry made to recover royal demesne
Reclaimed land taken by barons through purpresture
Seizure of land through escheat
Reform amongst sheriffs - in 1155 he replaced 21 of England's sheriffs
Assess Henry's efforts to recover county farm
Ineffective, as pipe rolls suggest revenues remained stagnant at £5,000 per annum for the first four years of his reign - Henry was compelled to find alternate sources of income
What was the geld?
Was an ancient taxation levied by saxon kings, which became a general land tax under William I
When did Henry revive the geld and to what effect?
In 1155, but its revenue was only 60% of what was calculated possible and thus did not satisfy administrative efforts. Was reattempted in 1161, but was thereafter abandoned
What was the cartae baronum and when was it introduced by Henry
In 1166, it was an inspection and recording of his vassals' lands and households
Assess Henry's cartae boronum as a financial reform
Was successful, as it led to an increase in scutage payments
What did the Forest Laws do?
Prohibit hunting in royal forests and felling
How much of england did Henry make royal forest by the end of his reign
Between one-third and one-quarter
Assess Henry's reform of increased afforestation
It was successful as it proved a lucrative source of income, yet many of his subjects resented it
2 factors of henry's reform of coinage
By 1158, the number of mints operating in england fell from 47 to 29
In 1158 he dismissed a number of minters and also introduced a new silver penny
Assess the impact of Henry's coinage reforms
Not entirely successful, as the new moneyers he admitted still engaged in coin clipping and counterfeiting, to the extent that he had to order a second purge in 1160
Henry was not able to full restore the currency's integrity until the latter part of his reign