The Angevin Empire, 1154- Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in The Angevin Empire, 1154- Deck (43):

Who was Hugh Bigod

Earl of Norfolk


Who was Gilbert Foliot

Bishop of Hereford and later London


When did Stephen I die

25 October 1154


Where and when was Henry II crowned King of England?

Westminster Abby, 19 December 1154


What did Henry's charter declare shortly after his accession?

That all concessions made to barons between his grandfather's death in 1135 and his accession invalid


How did Henry compromise with barons in England in his reign?

Henry would grant the same lands back to barons who surrendered their lands and titles to Henry, and accepted Henry as their feudal lord


How old was Henry when he ascended the throne?



What was Henry's first step in demilitarising England?

Ordering expulsion of all Flemish mercenaries in the country


What had Winchester determined regarding adulterine castles

They should be demolished, regardless of the allegiance of the nobles which built and held them


What year did Henry commence his military campaign to decommission civil war earldoms and adulterine castles

1155, and continued for 2 years


What 3 barons continued to defy royal authority after 1155's Great Council?

William of Aumale, Roger FitzMiles, Hugh of Mortimor


What action did henry take against William of Aumale?

In Febraury 1155, he led a host northward to York, resulting in Williams' surrender of Scarborough castle


Who persuaded Roger FitzMiles to surrender his adulterine castles

Gilbert Foliot, Roger's cousin


When did Hugh of Mortimor submit his castles to Henry?

In July 1155, after Henry had laid siege to his castles


How did Henry weaken the House of Blois in 1155?

He seized six castles belonging to Henry of Blois, Stephen's brother


Who did Henry appoint as his chief justiciars after his accession?

Robert of Beaumont and Richard of Luci


When had Henry's co-chief justiciars defected to the Angevins from Stephen?



Assess how Robert of Beaumont and Richard of Luci served Henry II

They were loyal and productive; building alliances between the crown and tenants-in-chief. They were also central in the revival of the Exchequer, judicial reform and providing Henry troops for French campaigns


When and why did Richard of Luci become sole chief justiciar

After death of Robert, 1168


How did Richard of Luci help the crown in 1173-4

Played crucial role in defeating a baronial revolt in these two years


Who was Nigel, Bishop of Ely

Henry's High Treasurer, nephew of Robert of Beaumont


Assess the effectiveness of Nigel as High Treasurer

His extensive knowledge of the Exchequer under Henry I enabled him to restore the office rapidly and by 1156 royal finances were being recorded in pipe rolls


Who replaced Nigel as high treasurer and when?

His son, Richard FitzNeal in 1164


Assess how Richard FitzNeal served the crown

In 1177 he wrote a treatise of the practises of the English Exchequer and ultimately helped bring about economic stability in England


What was the Chancellor's job?

He controlled the chancery, the king's writing office and acted as the king's private secretary


Who did Henry appoint as his Chancellor

Thomas Beckett


Assess Becket's role as Chancellor

he quickly established a close friendship with Henry as a skilled advisor and diplomat. He was central in Henry's foreign policy, acting on his behalf to the court of Louis VII. In 1159, he commanded an Angevin army during Henry's campaign in Toulose


When did Henry nominate Beckett archbishop of Canterbury?



List Henry's 6 financial reforms

Restoration of the county farm
Revival of the geld tax
Restoration of feudal hierarchy
Cartae Baronum - inspection of tenants-in-chief (vassals)
Increased afforestation
Recoinage and centralisation of royal mints


What is the term for the feudal obligations of vassals to supply the crown with knight service

Servitium debitum


What is the term for the reversion of land back to the crown after its landholder had died



In the first decade of his reign, name 3 efforts Henry made to recover royal demesne

Reclaimed land taken by barons through purpresture
Seizure of land through escheat
Reform amongst sheriffs - in 1155 he replaced 21 of England's sheriffs


Assess Henry's efforts to recover county farm

Ineffective, as pipe rolls suggest revenues remained stagnant at £5,000 per annum for the first four years of his reign - Henry was compelled to find alternate sources of income


What was the geld?

Was an ancient taxation levied by saxon kings, which became a general land tax under William I


When did Henry revive the geld and to what effect?

In 1155, but its revenue was only 60% of what was calculated possible and thus did not satisfy administrative efforts. Was reattempted in 1161, but was thereafter abandoned


What was the cartae baronum and when was it introduced by Henry

In 1166, it was an inspection and recording of his vassals' lands and households


Assess Henry's cartae boronum as a financial reform

Was successful, as it led to an increase in scutage payments


What did the Forest Laws do?

Prohibit hunting in royal forests and felling


How much of england did Henry make royal forest by the end of his reign

Between one-third and one-quarter


Assess Henry's reform of increased afforestation

It was successful as it proved a lucrative source of income, yet many of his subjects resented it


2 factors of henry's reform of coinage

By 1158, the number of mints operating in england fell from 47 to 29
In 1158 he dismissed a number of minters and also introduced a new silver penny


Assess the impact of Henry's coinage reforms

Not entirely successful, as the new moneyers he admitted still engaged in coin clipping and counterfeiting, to the extent that he had to order a second purge in 1160
Henry was not able to full restore the currency's integrity until the latter part of his reign


Assess the overall impact of Henry's financial reforms

By the late 1150s, royal income per annum had risen to £10,000 as opposed from £7,000. The relative success of his reforms were vital in the restoration of royal authority, due to the resultant economic superiority of the crown over barons