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Flashcards in The Atom Deck (11)
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1

Subatomic particles

o Electron – negative charge and little mass
o Proton – positive charge, tells what kind element it is
o Neutron – no charge

2

Rutherford’s discovery in 1911 proved:

o The atom is mostly empty space
o With a very dense nucleus

3

Atomic number

The number of protons of an atom, determines which element the atom is

4

Atomic mass

the average mass (weight) of the atom taking into account all the isotopes
The sum of protons and neutrons

5

Isotopes

Atoms that have the same amount of protons, but different amount of neutrons
Changes mass, but not chemical properties

6

Stable isotopes use

Used to study diet as the ratio passes up the food chain

7

Radioactive isotopes use

Used to study age: using known rate of decay, can measure how much of the isotope exists and thus how old something is

8

Ion

Any atom with a net charge
An atom with either more or less electrons than the number of protons

9

Electrons orbitals

• S (spherical) up to 2 electrons
• P (lobes) up to 6 electrons
• D (double lobes) up to 10 electrons
• F (many lobes) up to 14 electrons

10

Shell

A grouping of electrons around the nucleus

11

Valence electrons

Outer electrons shell
Involved in chemical bonds