Atoms bonded together. Mass = individual atoms mass added together.
Holds atoms together. Bonds are held together by valence electrons.
Metals and non-metals – two ions are held together by their opposite charges.
Atoms are happy (strongest bond) when there are 8 electrons in there outer shell (valence).
Two non-metals – the atoms share the electrons.
Weak bonds that are a result of polar molecules, where the electrons are pulled away from the hydrogen atoms. Net charge on each side of molecule.
Metallic atoms – share their electrons; special class of covalent bonds. Electrons are a cloud or sea. Metals are malleable (bendable, flexible) because electron cloud can move around. Metals conduct sound and electricity well, because of the electron cloud.
Has 4 valence electrons – it almost always forms a covalent bond.
Saturated (alkanes) – CnH2n+2
Unsaturated (alkenes) – CnH2n-2
How much (how badly) an atom wants more electrons.