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Flashcards in The Autonomic Nervous system II Deck (30):
1

Preganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic outflow are where

In the brain stem nuclei and the sacral spinal cord

2

Ganglia of the parasympathetic outflow are where

In the head and close to or inside the viscera

3

Discuss the EW preganglionic neuron

Edinger westphal neuron, goes to cardiac ganglia, is near the third cranial nerve, and constrict the pupil and culinary muscles

4

Discuss the salivatiory nuclei of the preganglionic neurons

Superior divides into 2: pterigo palatine ganglia and submandibular ganglia, to nasal and lacrimal glands and to submandibular and sublingual glands.
The inferior meets the otic ganglia and goes to parotid gland

5

Discuss the dorsal nucleus of vagus

Meets the cardiac and intramural ganglia, influences the bronchi the heart and the GI tract

6

All the ganglia in the head are close to which nerve

The trigeminus (fifth)

7

The enteric nervous system is branches of?

Pre ganglionic fibers of vagus nerve and the pelvic nerves which synapse in the enteric nervous system

8

What are the 2 plexuses of the enteric nervous sytem

The myenteric plexus and the submucosal plexus

9

How do the pelvic splanchnic nerves reach their targets

By entering the plexus' for the sympathetic nervous system

10

What kind of neurons are present in the enteric nervous system

Secretory neurons, intrinsic primary afferent neurons, motor neurons

11

Vagal activation leads to release of which neurotransmitters

Histamine, HCl, pepsinogen, gastrin

12

The preganglionic neurons of the sympathetic outflow are

In the thoraco lumbar region

13

What are white rami communications

They're how the preganglionic fibers reach the Paravertebral chain through collateral of the spinal nerves

14

Where are white rami communications

Only from T1 till L2

15

What are the 3 destinies of the preganglionic fibers from T1 till L2

They will synapse onto the closest ganglion (normally in the thoracic and lumbar region), or they will ascend or descend in the Paravertebral chain and synapse onto cervical and lumbosacral ganglia, or they will cross the Paravertebral chain and synapse infront of the aorta. These are splanchnic nerves

16

What is the destiny of the post ganglionic fibers coming from the Paravertebral chain

They will enter onto the closest/superior/inferior spinal nerves using grey rami communications, OR they will leave the Paravertebral chain and form perivascular plexus and splanchnic nerves

17

The post ganglionic fibers that enter the closest spinal nerves do what

They will provide sensory innervation for the viscera corresponding to spinal nerves T1 - L2, to sweat glands and blood vessels in this area

18

What are the cardiac nerves

Superior cervical cardiac nerve, inferior cervical cardiac nerve, middle cardiac nerve, thoracic cardiac nerve

19

Name the primary plexuses

The celiac plexus, aortic abdominal plexus, superior and inferior hypogastric plexus

20

The secondary plexus of the celiac plexus are

Paired (phrenic, suprarenal, renal, spermatic) and single (splenic, hepatic, gastric, superior mesenteric)

21

The purpose of the preaortic plexus is?

To provide a pathway for the distribution of preganglionic parasympathetic fibers, from the vagus nerve and pelvic splanchnic nerve to their peripheral targets

22

Preaortic plexus are made of

Preganglionic sympathetic fibers, post ganglionic sympathetic fibers, preganglionic parasympathetic fibers from the pelvic nerves or vagus nerve

23

Visceral sensory neurons are in which cranial nerves

The vagus, glossopharyngeal, facial nerves

24

Ganglia of vagus nerve that collects sensory information are called

Nodosus ganglia

25

Name 3 ways how viscerosensory fibers reach their peripheral targets

Through the vagus nerve, through anterior and posterior branches of the spinal nerves, through the splanchnic nerves

26

Visceral fibers sending pain are in communication with which nerves

Sympathetic splanchnic nerves

27

How is cardiac status innervated?

If painful: it's from the dorsal root sensory ganglia to the Paravertebral chain and then to the heart. Is painless: is conveyed through vagus nerve collateral from the nodosus

28

The greater splanchnic nerve refers pain from where to where? The lesser and the least?

From the foregut to T5-T9. Lesser from the midgut from T11-T12, and the least from the hindgut from T12-L3, and the lumbo-sacral splanchnic nerve

29

What is the pelvic pain line?

Is where the covering of the peritoneum stops in the hindgut, from here pain is sensed by parasympathetic pelvic splanchnic nerves, above here sensation is through sympathetic splanchnic nerves

30

Referred pain is a result of

Convergence of viscerosensory fibers coming from different viscera onto the same projecting neuron