Carbon dioxide generated by human adtivity
The total sum of living matter
The capture of carbon dioxide from large scale stationary sources (e.g. power plants) before it is released into the atmosphere. Once captured, the CO2 is put into long term storage.
A store of carbon that absorbs more that it releases.
Any gaseous compound in the atmosphere that is capable of absorbing infrared radiation, thereby trapping and holding heat in the atmosphere.
The crust and the uppermost mantle; this constitutes the hard and rigid layer of the Earth.
The breakdown of rocks in situ by a combination of weather, plants and animals.
Enhanced greenhouse effect
The impact on the climate from the additional heat retained due to the increased amounts of greenhouse gases that humans have released into the atmosphere since the industrial revolution.
The technology of capturing greenhouse gas emissions from power stations and pumping them into underground reservoirs.
The difference between the incoming solar energy absorbed by the Earth and the energy radiated back into space.
Soil organic carbon (SOC)
The organic constituents in the soil; tissues from dead plants and animals, products produced as these decompose and the soil microbial biomass.
A form of linkage between one store/component and another that involves movement of energy or mass.
The addition of matter and/or energy into a stystem.
A part of the system where energy/ mass is stored or transformed.
A set of interrelated components working together towards some kind of process
Water found in the atmosphere mainly water vapour with some liquid water (cloud and rain droplets) and ice crystals
The water locked up in the Earth’s surface as ice.
A discontinuous layer of water at or near the Earth’s surface. It includes all liquid and frozen surface waters, groundwater held in soil and rock and atmospheric water vapour.
The water contained in the Earth’s seas and oceans but not including inland seas.
Give and example of an inland sea.
The Caspian Sea
This consists of groundwater, soil moisture, lakes, wetlands and rivers.
The precipitation that falls on the vegetation surfaces (canopy) or human-made cover and is temporarily stored on these surfaces. Intercepted water can either be evaporated directly into the atmosphere, absorbed by the canopy surfaces or transmitted to the ground.
The tendency of water to flow horizontally across land surfaces when rainfall has exceeded the infiltration capacity of the soil and all surfaces stores are full and overflowing.
The downward flow of water within rock under the soil surface.
All water that enters a river channel and eventually flows out of the drainage basin.
The amount of precipitation intercepted by the canopy that reaches the ground by flowing down stems, stalks or tree bole.
Storm and rainfall event
An individual storm is a rainfall period separated by at least 24 hours of dry intervals.
An individual rainfall event is defined as a rainfall period separated by dry intervals of at least 24 hours.
The portion of the precipitation that reaches the ground directly through gaps in the vegetation canopy and drips from leaves, twigs and stems.
When does throughfall occur?
When the canopy- surface rainwater storage exceeds its storage capacity.
The movement of water down-slope through the subsoil under the influence of gravity.
When is throughflow particularly effective?
When underlying rock prevents further downward movement.
The loss of water from vegetation through stomata.
The balance between inputs and outputs in a drainage basin.
What is an input in a drainage system?
Give some examples of outputs from drainage basins.
Soil and ground water storage
The maximum discharge that a river channel is capable of carrying without flooding.
This represents the normal day-to-day discharge of the river and is the consequence of slow moving soil throughflow and groundwater seeping into the river channel.
The amount of water in a river flowing last a particular point in cumecs.
The time between the peak rainfall and peak discharge
The point of a flood hydrograph when river discharge is at its greatest.
Discharge resulting from storm precipitation involving both overland flow, throughflow and groundwater flow.
A graph of discharge if a river over the time period when the normal flow of the river is affected by a storm event.