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Flashcards in The Cold War Deck (30)
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What was the Truman doctrine?

Announced in March 1947

President Truman worried about the spread of Communism in Western Europe, where many countries were undergoing economic hardship after WW2. This made communism more appealing to them.

By early 1947, Britain told the USA that it could no longer afford to support the Greek and Turkish governments.

USA decides to intervene and try contain the spread of communism

President Truman made a speech to the US Congress. It was said in that speech that he would support any nation threatened by a communist takeover. This support could be diplomatic, military or financial.

eg 400m dollar of aid was given to Greece and Turkey to stop the spread of communism


What happened to Hungary 1956?

After WW2 USSR helped put brutal stalinist Rakosi incharge of Hungary. His authoritarian became unpopular which lead to the people of Budapest protest against the government in October 1956.

Krushchev allowed Nagy to take over Rakosi as the new Hungarian PM. Nagy hoped that Hungary could be a neutral state

Nov 1956, Nagy would withdraw from the warsaw pact and allow free elections - ending communism here

If hungary were to be allowed to leave other satellite states might follow. Therefore USSR was obliged to respond vigorously and set an example for the rest of the satellite states.

Khrushchev who only been came in power for two years wanted to use the crisis to assert his authority.

in November 1956. 2000 tanks and 6000 troops attacked Budapest and 20,000 Hungarians were wounded or killed. Nagy was hanged. Kadar placed prime minister and ensured loyalty towards the USSR


What was the Western Reactions after the Hungary crisis 1956, and its significance

lack of intervention from Western countries. Condemned USSR but did not want to risk a nuclear war.

UN asked USSR to withdraw from Hungary but Kadar refused to take part in discussions.

Western powers' reputations as upholders of democracy was discredited.

Their inaction sent a clear message to Eastern Europe that they would not receive any help from western powers to move away from USSR.

UN shown as weak

Krushchev's resonse to Hungary demonstrated disloyalty would not be tolerated and showed Western powers that they are still in control

pivotal moment for Khrushchev - he reasserted authority and destroyed any illusions in the West that his leadership signified a 'thaw' in the cold war.


When was the Cuban Revolution?


and it worried the US


What was the Bay of Pigs?

Where a geoup of Cuban exiles are trained to launch an attack on Castro and overthrowning him. He did this to make it look like a cuban revolution making america not involved. However Castro already knew about the plan therefore making Castro get ready (20,000 soldiers ready to fihgt 1400 invaders)


What happened in April 1961

1,400 exiles cubans landed on cuba


what was Cuba like before the Revolution? Who ruled it and what did he do?

since 1952 cuba was ruled by a ruthless military dictator

he allowed US bussineses and mafia to make huge profits in a country where most people lived in poverty


Who is Fidel Castro

He was a rebel;

in 1956, he began a guerrila war. (small military unit uses tactics like raids to fight a larger opponent)

By 1959 he had enough support to take Cuba's capital, Havana, and successfully overthew the Batista's government


How did USA react to kruchev putting weapons on cuba

Kennedy realised that if Cuba had missiles then they would he in under threat. Kennedy warned kruschev that he couldnt allow the soviet union to use cuba as a base to threaten USA


Why was the US worried about the Cuban revolution?

USA had long economic history with Cuba

It owned half of the Cuba's land and held most of the shares in all Cuban industries.

Therefore they felt that they had the right to be involved in cuba's affairs. But cubans grown to resent American influences.


How did USA push cuba closer to USSR?

When castro came in to power in 1959,

he increased taxes on goods imported fro america, which angered the USA

Eisenhower threatened to stop importing cuban sugar. Sugar was cuban's main source of wealth

Instead Castro signed a trade agreement with USSR - USSR promised to buy all sugar exports

All american property in cuba was confiscated

by Jan 1961 USA severed all diplomatic relations with Cuba and the new president kennedy nolonger recognise Castro's government


What was the bay of pigs?

Kennedy couldn't let a communist state emerge next to America so he intervened

in 1961, Kennedy authorised and invasion of Cuba anti-Castro rebels trained to overthrow him.

CIA trained 1500 anti-castro exiles

kennedy send 6 planes to bomb cuban air force (did not turn out well), so he canceled air support

supply ship also got destroyed

Castro was told that there would be an invasion but did not know the scale of it so he mobilised all troops (20,000 soldiers ready to fight 1400 invaders)

all exile captured within 7 hours

this lead to Castro decide that they need soviet military support to defend it's self


consequences of the Bay of Pigs

for usa
humiliating and embarrassing failure
doing what they condemn ussr for
fresh plan to get rid of castro

for ussr
closer relationship with cuba
propaganda victory
august 1961 khrushchev placed nuke in cuba

for cuba
become communist
military support from USSR
Castro felt vulnerable


cuban missile - cause

The reason why Khrushchev placed missile in Cuba was because NATO had missile in turkey and so they have to have a deterrent near America


cuban missile - consequences

- Hotline established so Moscow and Washington could communicate more directly and more quickly in event of a crisis

- all nuclear missile removed from Cuba, then from Turkey by 1963

- Kennedy emerge from the crisis as a hero who stood up against thread of communism

- khrushchev was discredited, he forced the USA to remove missile from Turkey but agreed to keep the deal a secret. In the eyes of the public he failed and resigned in 1964

- in the long term it also prompted new measure to bring the build up of of missile under control, eg test ban treaty, outer space treaty, nuclear non proliferation treaty.


When was the two olympic boycotts

1980 and 1984

In 1980 the USA boycotted the Moscow Olympics in protest at the invasion of Afghanistan. The USSR would return the favour by boycotting the 1984 Olympic Games in Los Angeles!


discovery of missiles in Cuba

on 23 October 1962
An American U2 spy plane took picture of the missiles in Cuba that was discovered on the 14th oct.


order of events happend on "the 13 day "

16 oct 1962
Kennedy called the Executive comitee (ex comm) to discuss how America should react to the missile, they met every day for 13 days,

22 oct 1962
Kenedy decide to not launch an attack,
he set up naval blockade and announced about the missle on TV

24 oc 1962
USSR agree to remove missiles in cuba if they agreed to not invade them,

17 oct 1962
an U2 spy plane shot down
Khrushchev would remove the missiles if America remove theirs


order of events happend on "the 13 day "

16 oct 1962
Kennedy called the Executive comitee (ex comm) to discuss how America should react to the missile, they met every day for 13 days,

22 oct 1962
Kenedy decide to not launch an attack,
he set up naval blockade and announced about the missle on TV

24 oc 1962
USSR agree to remove missiles in cuba if they agreed to not invade them,

17 oct 1962
an U2 spy plane shot down
Khrushchev would remove the missiles if America remove theirs in Turkey

28 oct 1962
America ignored the second proposal and agreed to the first, however they later agreed in private they would remove their missile in turkey


What were the Hawks and Doves in CMC

Members of the excom
Hawks are the ones wanted to attack Cuba
Doves are the ones who wanted to negotiate


importance of CMC

it forced everyone to face up how quickly a tense situation could escalate to absolute catastrophe,


what were the events leading up to the soviet invasion of Afghanistan

April 1978
-Taraki's pro-soviet goverment took control in Afghanistan and receive economic support from the soviets.
- Many ordinary Afghans rejected the new communist government because its atheism was at odds with their Muslim faith. The communists imprisoned, tortured and murdered many Muslim religious leaders.
-This led to the formation of an anti-communist resistance movement known as the Mujahideen(which was also funded by USA).

In September 1979
- the Afghan politician, Amin, arranged for the murder of the communist Prime Minister, Taraki, and Amin seized control.
- The soviets started sending troops to Afghanistan claiming they had been invited by Amin to support his government, but it was certain that they assasined him days later on 27 december.

27 december 1978
Soviet replaced Amin with Barack Kamal who is pro communist and let USSR stay to help him fight his oppositions.


So why did
soviet invade Afghanistan in 1979

- Afghanistan is a neighbouring country

- Shah(King) gets replaced by muslim fundamentalist government which Moscow determined to stop the spread as inside USSR they have many muslim citizens

- Persian Gulf is rich in oil


What were the impacts of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan

- USA imposed economic sanctions ( trade bans) on USSR

- President Carter withdrew SALT2

- Carter Doctrine states that USA would respond with force to any threat to American interests in the Persian Gulf, which is also directly modeled on the Truman doctrine to show it's significance

- marked the official end of detente

- mujahideen gets funded by USA and were given supplies such as weapon

- Ronald Reagan ridiculed president carter for being weak and wanted to reclaim its position on the world stage. He won a landslide victory.

- In 1980 the USA boycotted the Moscow Olympics in protest at the invasion of Afghanistan. The USSR would return the favour by boycotting the 1984 Olympic Games in Los Angeles!


Challenges faced by the Soviet Army in Afghanistan

-The Soviet Red Army was ill-prepared for the desert and mountain landscapes of Afghanistan.
-The Mujahideen had expert local knowledge and used the deserts and mountainous terrain to their advantage.
-The Mujahideen were extremely motivated as they were fighting for their homeland and their religion against a foreign invader.

Afghanistan became the Soviet Union’s Vietnam: an expensive, embarrassing war with little hope of victory, where they were beaten by local guerrilla forces.

It dragged on until 1988 when the Soviet leader, who by then was Mikhail Gorbachev, signed a deal to end the war and the last Soviet troops left Afghanistan in February 1989.


Break-up of the Warsaw Pact up to 1991

After 1985,
Gorbachev refused to use Soviet or Warsaw Pact forces to control E. Europe:
Gorbachev encouraged Glasnost and Perestroika in other Eastern European countries. To save money, Gorbachev withdrew Soviet troops from other countries in Eastern Europe.

1989 'year of miracles':
communist rules collapsed across Easter Europe

In september,
Hungary opened its borders with Austria and East Germany opened its
borders with Austria

In November,
Berliners tore down the Berlin Wall with hammers and chisels and the Communist governments of East Germany, Czechoslovakia and Bulgaria all resigned.

In december,
Ceausescu, the Romanian dictator, was overthrown and shot.

The events of 1989 and the collapse of communist governments across Eastern Europe made it impossible for the Warsaw Pact to survive - military co-operation between the member states ended in early 1990 and the Pact was formally dissolved in July 1991


How did Gorbachev's new thinking effect US soviet relations

Gorbachev's reform is summaried in 2 main terms:

- Glasnost: Russian term for 'openess'. Used to describe his more open attitude to government and foreign relations
- Perestroika: word for reconstruction. It was used to describe his reorganising and structuring of the USSR

changes in policy:
- removal of Breznev doctrine
- reduce spending in ARMs and defence and withdraw from Afghanistan


Fall of the Belin Wall

Fall of the Berlin Wall, November 1989

After collapse of Hungarian communist government people started leaving E Germany through Hungary.

This forced the E German government to open the Berlin Border and when this was announced people flooded to the wall and began dismantling it.

This was broadcast around the world and was a hugely significant event.


What was Reagan's evil empire speech

Evil Empire Speech In a speech in March 1983, Reagan called the Soviet Union ‘The Evil Empire’. Felt he could ‘win’ the Cold War by putting pressure on the Soviets


What was the Strategic Defence Initiative

Strategic Defence Initiative
Announced ability to shoot down Soviet missiles using lasers in space, giving the USA a huge advantage in the Arms race