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Flashcards in Elizabeth Deck (10)
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1

What situation did Elizabeth face at the start of her reign ,and what was the situation like?

Legitimacy
Daughter of Anne Boleyn and Henry VIII after his divorce from Catherine of Aragon, not everyone accepted Elizabeth’s legitimacy (especially Catholics) Many thought that Mary Queen of Scots was the legitimate Queen

Marriage
Women were thought to be inferior. A queen ruling by herself was very unusual so many felt that Elizabeth
should marry

Religion
In 1558, country was divided by religion (Protestant and
Catholic)

Foreign Powers
England was weak compared to others (France and Spain = most powerful and were both Roman Catholic

Money
England had just fought a costly War. Crown was in 300,000 pound debt when she took the throne

2

Revolt of the Northern Earls

1569
Causes,
Northern nobility tended
to remain Catholic.
Did well out of Mary I’s
reign.
Found their influence
reduced under Elizabeth
and disliked her
‘favourites’ like Dudley
and Cecil

the Plan,
Earls of Northumberland and Westmorland would
raise an army and take control of Durham and
would then march south to join the Duke of
Norfolk’s forces
Several thousand Spanish troops would land in
Hartlepool to support the rebels
Mary Queen of Scots would be freed, married to
the Duke Norfolk and placed on the throne


Main Events,
November 1659 – earls of
Northumberland and
Westmorland led a rebellion
against Elizabeth called the Revolt
of the Northern Earls.
Took Durham Cathedral and
celebrated a full Catholic mass

Outcome,
Most nobles stayed loyal to Elizabeth and by 24
November they were forced to retreat and
eventually defeated.
Prompted harsher treatments against Catholics.
Pope Pius VI excommunicated Elizabeth
(expelled her from the church)

3

Causes of The Revolt Of Nortern Earls, 1569

Northern nobility tended to remain Catholic.
Did well out of Mary I’s reign.
Found their influence reduced under Elizabeth and disliked her ‘favourites’ like Dudley and Cecil

4

Main events of the revolt of the northern Earls

November 1569 – earls of Northumberland and Westmorland led a rebellion against Elizabeth called the Revolt of the Northern Earls.
Took Durham Cathedral and celebrated a full Catholic mass

5

The plan of the Revolt of the Northern Earls

Earls of Northumberland and Westmorland would raise an army and take control of Durham and would then march south to join the Duke of Norfolk’s forces
Several thousand Spanish troops would land in Hartlepool to support the rebels
Mary Queen of Scots would be freed, married to the Duke Norfolk and placed on the throne

6

outcomes of the revolt of the Northern Earls, 1569

Most nobles stayed loyal to Elizabeth and by 24 November they were forced to retreat and eventually defeated.
Prompted harsher treatments against Catholics. Pope Pius VI excommunicated Elizabeth (expelled her from the church)

7

Throckmorton Plot, 1583

Who? What?
- Duke of Guise, Mary’s cousin, to invade and overthrow Elizabeth. Francis Throckmorton acted as go - between

Events
-Walsingham uncovered the plot. Papers found at Throckmorton’s house and he was tortured and executed in 1584

Results/Significance
-Again reinforced threat from Spain and Mary (and potentially France)
List of Catholic sympathisers concerned Elizabeth.
More harsher laws against Catholics

8

Was was establishing Virginia seen as important

- A base to attack Spanish colonies from
- A base for privateering (piracy)
- Acts as an example for future colonies
- England would no longer need to rely on Europe for trade if it could control the trade from the New World
- North Americans could choose English traders over Spanish traders

9

Why did the first plan to colonise virginia fail?

- Vital supplies were damaged
- (Difficulty hunting) Gunpowder had been spoiler on the journey
- Had wrong mix of people
- Left too late to plant crops (rip)
- Problems with the Native Americans

10

What happnened to the second attempt to colonise virginia?

Manteo was made Lord Roanoke and John White in overall charge
They experienced many problems, including significant hostility from Native tribes (e.g. John White’s adviser, George Howe, was found dead with 16 arrow wounds)
John White returned to England to update Raleigh and when he returned in 1590 he found the colony deserted
The only clue as to what happened to the settlers was the word ‘Croatoan’ carved into a post