The Cranium (AKA Hooooly shit there are a lot of structures in the Cranium) Flashcards Preview

Anatomy Exam 1 > The Cranium (AKA Hooooly shit there are a lot of structures in the Cranium) > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Cranium (AKA Hooooly shit there are a lot of structures in the Cranium) Deck (104):
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Viscerocranium

Facial skeleton, in red. Develops from pharyngeal arches. Nasal, Inferior Nasal Concha, Palatine, Lacrimal, Ethmoid (except cribiform plate), Zygomatic. Mandible, Vomer, Maxilla,Temporal (tympanic portion, including the styloid process),Sphenoid (Pterygoid processes).

NIPLEZ MVMTS!

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Neurocranium

Brain skeleton, in white. Develops from paraxial mesoderm. Sphenoid, Temporal, Ethmoid, Parietal, Occipital, Frontal (STEPOF my skull!)

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Bones of the Cranium

27 + mandible. Sutures between bones to hold it together, allow for growth. As brain grows, cranial elements around them grow/expand to accommodate. If skull was just one bone, different rates of growth would not be able to be accomodated.

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Lacrimal Bone

Smallest bone in face. Front medial wall of orbit.

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Zygomatic Bone

Upper lateral part of face, forms prominence with cheek. Floor of the orbit.

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Nasal bone

Form the bridge of the nose

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Ethmoid Bone

Separates nasal cavity from the brain. Located at roof of nose, between two orbits.

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Middle Nasal Concha

Medial surface of labryinth of ethmoid ends in middle nasal concha. Directed vertically downward from cribiform plate.

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Crista Galli

Crest of a rooster. Attachment for dura

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Cribiform plate

Junction for olfactory bulb (CN1), will line either side and innervate nose. Penetrate though holes in cribiform plate to reach nose.

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Ethmoid Air Cells

Composed of pockets of air cells, holes in bone

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Nasal Concha

Exist to increase surface area --> more gaseous exchanges/more moisture picked up

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Orbital plate

Lamina papyracea (layer of paper). Very thin, succeptible to breakage. Forms medial surface of the orbit.

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Perpendicular plate (ethmoid bone)

thin lamina of the ethmoid bone, descends from cribiform plate assiting in forming the septum of the nose.

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Inferior Nasal Concha

Extends horizontally down lateral wall of nasal cavity

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Sphenoid

Immediately behind ethmoid.

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Greater wing of sphenoid

Lateral. Larger than lesser. Curved upward, laterally, and back. Features: foramen rotundum, foramen ovale, and foramen spinosum.

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Lesser wing of sphenoid

Medial. Two thin plates, end in sharp points. Main features are optic canal and superior orbital fissure.

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Foramen Rotundem

Top foramen of the sphenoid, transmits the maxillary nerve

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Foramen Ovale

Middle foramen of the sphenoid, transmits the mandibular nerve, the accessory meningeal artery, and lesser petrosal nerve

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Foramen Spinosum

Bottom foramen of the sphenoid in the posterior angle near to and in front of the spine; transmits recurrent branch from mandibular nerve

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Superior orbital fissure

CN 3,4, Optic 5, and 6 pass through. Part of lesser wing of sphenoid

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Optic canal

Superiomedial of sphenoid bone. Lateral of sella turcica

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Pterygoid Canal

Runs posteromedially through sphenoid bone. Transmits nerve, artery, and vein of pterygoid canal

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Optic canal

CN2 (Optic Nerve) passes through. Medial in sphenoid bone

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Sella Turcica

Turkish Cell. Depression in Sphenoid bone, holds pituitary gland. Most medial in sphenoid bone.

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Pterygoid processes

Part of sphenoid bone Involved in Mastication. Consist of a medial and lateral bone fused at their upper parts.

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Temporal Bone

Has parts in viscerocranium and neurocranium.

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Styloid process

Attachment for muscles. Just below acoustic meatus.

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Squamous part of temporal bone

Component of temporal bone. Forms lateral component of neurocranium.

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Petrous part of temporal bone

component of temporal bone. wedged in at the base of the skull between the sphenoid and occipital bones

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Petrous Ridge

 Between medial cranial fossa to posterior cranial fossa in interior.

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Acoustic Meatus

Has internal/external components. Petrous part of temporal bone + ear canal

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Internal acoustic meatus

CN 7/8 pass through

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External acoustic meatus

ear canal

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Tympanic part of temporal bone

in front of mastoid process, surrounds acoustic meatus

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Zygomatic Process

Arched process connecting temporal with zygomatic bone.

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Fossa

Depression

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Mandibular Fossa

depression in the temporal bone that articulates with the mandibular condyle. Bounded by the articular tubule.

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Jugular Fossa

Deep depression in temporal bone posterior to carotid canal. Lodges the bulb of the internal jugular vein.

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Carotid Canal

Carotid passes through temporal here

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Stylomastoid Foramen

Transmits facial nerve and stylomastoid artery

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Aparatus of Ear

Ossicles: Malleus, Incus, Stapes. Aka middle ear, house the ossicles.

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Auditory Tube

Aka eustachian tube. Links nasopharynx to middle ear. Important for pressure equalization.

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Maxillary bone

form upper jaw/palate of mouth

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Vomer Bone

Vomer + ethmoid separate nasopharynx. Unpaired bone. Located at midsaggital line, forms posterior portion of nasal septum. Thin

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Palatine Bone

Situated at the back of the nasal cavity between maxilla and pterygoid process of sphenoid. Articulates w/ maxilla.

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Sinuses

Pockets of air lined with mucous membranes

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Frontal sinuses

Passageway from frontal sinuses into ethmoidal area

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Maxillary sinuses

Largest sinuses. Found in body of maxilla, drain into middle meatus of nose.

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Sphenoidal sinuses

Contained in body of sphenoid.

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Nasolacrimal duct

Post-nasal drip

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Mandible (bone)

Form lower jaw.

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Mandibular Condyle

Head and neck of mandible. Point where it articulates with the articular disc of the temporomandibular joint.

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Ramus of Mandible

Lateral surface of dorsal mandible

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Mandibular angle

Anteroposterior ridge of mandible

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Alveolus of Mandible

Anterior to teeth, tooth socket

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Mandibular Foramen

opening on the internal surface of the ramus. Allows mandibular nerve and vessels to pass

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Mylohyoid groove

Groove along interior of mandible, lodges mylohyoid vessel/nerves.

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Coronoid process

attachments to temporalis and masseter muscles

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Mental Protruberance

responsible for structure of chin

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Mental foramen

allows passage of mental nerve and vessels

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Calvaria

Plate-like bones surrounding the brain. "Skull-cap". Unique plate-like bones composed of inner and outer tables, with cancellous diploë in between

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Diploe

Layer consists of bone containing red bone marrow

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Bones of the Orbit

Bones of orbit: Sphenoid, frontal, lacrimal, ethmoid, palatine, maxilla, zygomatic

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Bones of Nasal Cavity/Nasalpharynx

Vomer, ethmoid, Nasal, Lacrimal, Ethmoid, Sphenoid, palatine, inferior nasal concha, maxilla

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Temporomandibular Joint

Only moving joint of the cranium. Head of mandible rides on Articular Tubercle, not against the Mandibular Fossa

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Coronal Suture

Suture between Frontal and parietal

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Sphenoparietal

Suture between Sphenoid and parietal. Found at position of pterion.

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Squamosal

Suture between squamous and parietal

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Lambdoidal

Cranial suture from parietal to occipital

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Occipitomastoidal

Occipital to mastoid (petrous part of temporal)

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Metopic Suture

Destroyed with age, sutures together sagitally the frontal bone

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Sagittal suture

Between two parietal bones in skull

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Fontanelles

Soft membranous gaps in infants' head between incomplete sutures in the cranium. Colloquially refered to as "soft spots"

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Extranumerary bones

Seen in skulls when undergoing rapid growth, bony elements along sutures. Also refered to as Incan/Wormian bone

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Le Fort Classification

Maxillary bones (and their neighbors) tend to fracture in set patterns; bilaterally and either horizontally, pyramidally, or transverly.

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Foramen Magnum

Large opening in occipital bone of cranium, spinal cord exits. Medulla oblongata, vertebral arteries, and accessory nerve (CNXI)

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Plagiocephaly

Premature fusion of one side of crania, either coronal or lambdoidal sutures ( flattening of one side of the skull). Flat head syndrome, increased because of SIDS training --> babies being put on their back.

 

 

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Craniosynostosis

Deformities resulting from premature closure of cranial sutures. Type of deformity depends on which sutures fuse prematurely. 5-8% of newborns

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Scaphocephaly

Long narrow head resulted from premature fusion of sagittal suture (40-60%)

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Brachycephaly

Premature fusion of coronal suture (20-30%). Another form of "flat head" syndrome. [Note not from lecture: This is frequently a characteristic of Down Syndrome]

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Trigonocephaly

Premature fusion of metopic suture (<10%). Results in triangle shaped forehead as visible from top.

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Kleeblattschadel/Cloverleaf

Premature fusion of coronal, lambdoidal, and sagittal. Extremely rare. Skull appears clover shaped, usually a significant reduction in IQ.

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Microcephaly

Severe reduction in brain size

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Hydrocephaly

abnormal buildup of CSF in the ventricles of the brain --> increase of cranial pressure --> mental disability/death

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Bregma

Coronal suture and sagittal suture intersection

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Glabella

Point where eyebrows come together. Right above naison

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Nasion

Intersection of frontal bone and nasal bones

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Pterion

intersection of the frontal, temporal, sphenoid, and parietal bones, generally along the sphenoparietal suture

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Lambda

The point at the intersection of the sagittal and lambdoidal sutures

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Anterior Cranial Fossa

depression in the floor of the cranial vault which houses the frontal lobes. Formed by frontal bones, cribiform plate of ethmoid, and sphenoid

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Middle Cranial Fossa

Houses temporal lobe of brain.

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Posterior cranial fossa

Houses cerebellum, pons, and medulla

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Incisive Foramen

Nasopalatine Nerve (from CN V2) and Sphenopalatine Vessels

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Greater and Lesser Foramen

Greater and Lesser Palatine Nerve (from CN V2) and Vessels

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Foramen Ovale

Mandibular Nerve (CN V3) and Accessory Meningeal Artery

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Foramen Spinosum (Base of Cranium)

Middle Meningeal Artery and Meningeal Branch of Mandibular Nerve (CN V3)

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Foramen Lacerum

Internal Carotid (Carotid Canal passes through horizontally)

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Carotid Canal (Base of Cranium)

Internal Carotid Artery

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External Acoustic Meatus (Base of Cranium)

Auditory apparatus

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Stylomastoid Foramen (Base of skull)

Facial Nerve (CNVII)

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Jugular Foramen

Inferior Petrosal Sinus becomes Internal Jugular Vein, Glossopharyngeal Nerve (CN IX), Vagus Nerve (CN X), Accessory Nerve (CN XI), and Posterior Meningeal Artery

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Hypoglossal Canal

Located below Condyle. Hypoglossal Nerve passes through