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Flashcards in Superficial Face Deck (53):

Primordial Stomodeum

Future mouth. Facial structures begin to develop around here at weeks 4-8


Oropharyngeal Membrane

covered on the outside by ectoderm and on the inside by endoderm, separates the foregut from the amniotic cavity. The membrane will rupture around the end of the 4th week (26 days) allowing the amniotic fluid to pass into the pharynx


Frontonasal Prominence

Single/unpaired. Surrounds ventrolateral part of forebrain. Has a fronal and nasal part (if the name didn't give it away…). Frontal portion forms the forehead. Nasal portion forms upper part of stomedium and nose.


Maxillary prominence

Dual/paired. Produced by the neural crest cells that migrate from the neural fold into the maxillary prominence. Form the lateral boundary of the stomodeum. Move medially to meet the paired prominence from the other side. Give rise to maxillary/palatine shelves.


Mandibular prominence

Produced by migration of the neural crest. Forms the caudal boundary of the primitive mouth (stomedium). Gives rise to the mandible and the lower lip


Nasal Placode

Nasal sac/pit, give rise to olfactory epithelium


Cleft Lip

a fissure or opening—a gap. It is the non-fusion of the body's natural structures that form before birth. Feeding is distorted because suction cannot be generated


First Pharyngeal Arch

First pharyngeal arch developed in fetal life. Between stomodeum and first pharyngeal groove. Eventually evelops into: Muscles of mastication Mylohyoid m Anteior belly of digastric Tensor tympani Tensor veli palatini. Trigeminal nerve is the nerve of the first arch


Second Pharyngeal Arch

Eventually develops into muscles of facial expression, Stylohyoid, Posterior belly of digastric, Hyoid bone. Facial nerve is the nerve of the second arch



Trigeminal! Branches into Opthalmic, Maxillary, and Mandibular for innervation of superficial face


Opthalmic Division of CNV

Sensory of innervation of the forehead


Supraorbital Nerve

branch of opthalamic division of CNV, sensory to lateral forehead and upper eyelid


Supratrochlear Nerve

Branch of opthalamic division of CNV, sensory to medial forehead and upper eyelid


Infratrochlear Nerve

Branch of opthalamic division of CNV, Sensory to medial part of the eye and root of nose


Maxillary division of CNV

Sensory to the skin between the lower eyelid and the upper lip and the skin over the zygomatic bone and nose


Infraorbital Nerve

Branch of maxillary division of CNV, comes from below eyeball. Sensory to skin of the lower eyelid, cheek, lateral nose and upper lip, Sensory to skin over the anterior part of temporal fossa.


Mandibular Division of CNV

Sensory to the skin over the mandible. Splits to mental nerve, buccal nerve, and auriculotemporal nerve.


Mental Nerve

Branch of mandibular division of CNV. Sensory over the skin of chin and lower lip


Buccal Nerve (Long Buccal)

Branch of mandibular division of CNV. Sensory to the skin and the oral mucosa of the cheek


Auriculotemporal Nerve

Branch of mandibular division of CNV. Sensory to the scalp anterior to the ear and posterior part of the temporal fossa


Great auricular nerve

Branch of cervical plexus. Sensory to skin inferior to ear and over parotid gland.


Trigeminal Neuralgia

AKA tic douloureux. Disorder of sensory root of CNV. Sudden sharp pain in face, 15-20 minutes. Maxillary nerve usually involved. Cause unknown


Muscles of Facial Expression

Lie in the superficial fascia Attached partly to the skin. Enable us to move the skin of the face and change our facial expressions. Do not move bones of the face. All muscles of the facial expression are innervated by the facial nerve. There is no distinct deep fascia on the face. Facial lacerations gape widely. Muscles are arranged around the natural openings of the face and act as sphincters.


Orbicularis Oculi

Sphincter muscle of the orbit. Has an orbital portion and palpebral portion. Produces crows feet – wrinkling of the skin lateral to the orbit.


Orbicularis Oculi Orbital

Concious eye closure


Orbicularis Oculi Palpebral

Unconcious eyelid movement


Depressor Anguli Oris

Trangular muscle. Depresses corners of mouth.


Zygomatic Major

Extend from the zygomatic bone to the lateral corner of the mouth. act to raise the corner of the mouth and the upper lip (Smiling!) Same fxn as minor, different attachment


Zygomatic Minor

Extend from the zygomatic bone near orbicularis oculi to the lateral corner of the mouth. act to raise the corner of the mouth and the upper lip (Smiling!) Same fxn as major different attachment


Levator labii superioris

Descends from the infraorbital margin to the upper lip. Acts to raise the upper lip


Levator anguli oris

Extends from the maxilla (below the infraorbital foramen) to the corner of the mouth. Raises the corner of the mouth


Depressor Labii Inferioris

Attached inferiorly to the mandible and superiorly blends with the orbicularis oris muscle. Depresses the lower lip



Attached to the alveolar processes of the mandible and maxilla and the pterygomandibular raphe. Aids in mastication (but is not a muscle of mastication. Keeps cheek taut so you don't bite it! Used in whistling.


Orbicularis Oris

Sphincter muscle of the mouth/oral cavity. Encircles the mouth and forms a prominence of the upper and lower lips. When contractly, mouth is closed. Comprssed tips against lips, holds food during mastication.



Lies in superficial fascia. Blends with skin above mandible. Depresses mandible and stops neck from wrinkling/folding.


Muscles of Scalp

Occipitalis and frontalis (Often considered one muscle: occipitofrontalis, connected by epicranial aponeurosis). The two bellies of the muscle are interconnected by a tendinous sheath known as the epicranial aponeurosis No bony attachments Produces a surprised look when contracted


Motor Innervation of Superficial Face Muscles

Facial Nerve (CNVII), exits parotid and gives off 5 branches: To Zanzibar By Motor Car. Temporal, Zygomatic, Buccal, Marginal Mandibular, Cervical



proceeds superiorly slightly anterior to the ear



courses towards the corner of the eye


Buccal (Facial)

motor to the muscles over the cheek area



proceeds inferomedially across the mandible



courses below the mandible to supply the platysma


Bells Palsy

Damage to CNVII or its branches producing paralysis in some or all of the muscles it innervates


Facial Artery

Usually the 4th branch of the external carotid. crosses the mandible (slightly anterior to the angle) and then follows a sinuous course across the face to the medial angle of the eye. Compression of facial artery - done at the mandible but does not stop bleeding completely because of anastomosis with the facial artery on the other side of the face. Branches to inferior labial, superior labial, and angular arteries.


Inferior labial artery

Branches from facial artery. Supplies blood to lower lip


Superior labial artery

Branches from facial artery. Supplies blood to upper lip


Angular Artery

Terminal part of facial artery. Medial corner of eye.


Superficial Temporal Artery

One of the terminal Branches of the External Carotid Artery. Branches into 3 to supply face and scalp: transverse facial, parietal, and frontal


Transverse Facial Artery

Branch of superficial temporal artery. Follows parotid duct transversely across the face


Parietal Artery

Branch of superficial temporal artery. Supplies lateral part of scalp


Frontal Artery

Branch of superficial temporal artery. Supplies anterior part of scalp.


Facial Vein

Begins as angular vein at root of nose. No valves, so reflux of infection in danger area (triangle around nose) is a signifcant risk. Makes connections with the cavernous sinus and the pterygoid plexus of vein