Flashcards in The Decline of Staple Industries After 1919 Deck (18):
Describe the Political Setting in 1918
- Election held a month after end of war
- Liberal Coalition with the Conservatives was maintained
- Labour left coalition
- Known as coupon election - Lloyd George's letter
- All men (over 21) + women over 30 could vote
- Coaliton gov. won - Lloyd George's popularity
- Lloyd George = prisoner of the conservatives
Describe the Economic Setting in 1918
- War left Britain in debt + exhausted
- During war government participation in economy had increased
- Key industries (e.g. coal + railways) had been completely taken over
- Labourers had been controlled + directed to new levels
- Taxation had increased
- Government had controlled prices + wages - prevent inflation + discontent
- Government wanted to return to per-war economic conditions
What was the Post War Agitation?
- Government promises about living standards - "homes fit for heroes"
-War marked end of an age of innocence - reflected in growing militancy taking place in industry
- Sudden period of inflation caused by removal of government wartime controls of prices/profits/guaranteed wages
- Prices + profits rose but wages lagged
- Trade unions wanted to protect member - 2000 strikes during 1919/20
- Strikes were about wages, working conditions + disillusionment with post war Britain (e.g. difference in wealth)
- Communist ideas were popular at this time - Red flag in Glasgow
What were the Difficulties in Mining?
- Miners wanted the mines nationalized because (during war) conditions improved + wages stabilised
- Government wanted the mines to be privitiesed soon after the war
- Miners' Federation threatened national strike if demands were not met (6 hour days/30% wage increase/natioanlisation of the mines)
- Lloyd George was concerned about effects of national strike so compromised by offering 7 hour days + continued government control with the establishment of a Royal Commission under Lord Sankey to investigate problems - miners accepted
Why was there a Short Term Boom Followed by a Slump at the end of the War?
Why was the National Insurance Act Extended in 1920?
- All workers earning less than £259 a year with some exceptions (e.g. domestic servants)
Why was Extending the National Insurance Act Negative?
- At point of boom conditions were applied + mass unemployment not expected
- Slump caused the system not to cope - payments to unemployed outweighed the contributions
- Government extended scheme further to 2 16 week periods in any year with a gap in between
- Did not deal with cause only effect
Describe the Effects of the Sankey Commission (1921)
- Mines returned to private ownership
- Lloyd George announced mines + railways would be returning to previous owners on 1st April 1921
What was Black Friday?
- Mine Owners cut wages because of slump
- Requested that Triple Alliance (railway + transport workers) supported them in national strike
- Allies abandoned idea - miners viewed as betrayal
- Miners continues to Strike for 3 months
- Had to return to pits after being forced to accept reduction in wages
Describe Geddes Axe
- Government rescued spending by £64 mil
- Cuts introduced in the poorest sections of society (armed forces/council houses/education)
- Labour wasn’t happy as it targeted poorest sections
Describe the Addison Housing Act 1919
- Provided local authorities with money to build houses for the working class
- 213000 houses were built
What Events Led to the Fall of Lloyd George.
- LG became dependent upon conservatives
- Splitting Ireland - many conservatives wanted to keep the whole of Ireland
- Threatening War on Turkey when they breached the treaty of Versailles
What was the Carlton Club?
- Conservative meeting to decide whether to continue with the coalition
- 85 in favour + 185 against
- LG resigned + replaced with Andrew Bonarn Law
Explain the Link Between Baldwin and Tariff
- Baldwin (conservative) prime minister end of 1922
- Issue of tariffs over imports from outside Empire divided Britain
- Liberal + Labour supporters believed in free trade + argued foreign imports kept the prices low for ordinary people
- Con=258 Lab=191 Lib=159 - Results was a clear defeat for protectionism
Describe the First Labour Government.
- MacDonald was prime minister
- Gave Labour oppoertunity to establish its self/gain repetablility/give leaders experience of being in office
Was the First Labour Government a Success?
- Wheatley's Housing Act
- Funded some public work schemes
- In office for less than a year
- Did little to tackle unemployment
- Threatened to use emergency powers against strikers (own supporters)
What was the Wheatley's Housing Act?
- Allocated state subsidies to local authorities to build houses for rent
- Extension of Addison Housing Act