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Flashcards in The Digestive System Deck (21):


the first portion of the alimentary canal that receives food



a watery substance located in the mouths of organisms, secreted by the salivary glands. Human saliva is 99.5% water, while the other 0.5% consists of electrolytes, mucus, glycoproteins, enzymes, and antibacterial compounds such as secretory IgA and lysozyme



another word for saliva



a muscular hydrostat on the floors of the mouths of most vertebrates which manipulates food for mastication. It is the primary organ of taste (gustation), as much of the upper surface of the tongue is covered in papillae and taste buds. It is sensitive and kept moist by saliva, and is richly supplied with nerves and blood vessels



is the anterior part of the neck, in front of the vertebral column. It consists of the pharynx and larynx. An important feature of the throat is the epiglottis, a flap which separates the esophagus from the trachea and prevents inhalation of food or drink


Pharynx / Faringe, la parte superior del esófago

part of the conducting zone of the respiratory system which is made up of the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and terminal bronchioles; their function is to filter, warm, and moisten air and conduct it into the lungs


Voice Box

an organ in the neck of mammals involved in protection of the trachea and sound production



a muscular, hollow, dilated part of the digestion system which functions as an important organ of the digestive tract in some animals, including vertebrates, echinoderms, insects (mid-gut), and molluscs; involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication (chewing); located between the esophagus & small intestine; secretes protein-digesting enzymes called proteases and strong acids to aid in food digestion, (sent to it via esophageal peristalsis) through smooth muscular contortions (called segmentation) before sending partially digested food (chyme) to the small intestines


Pyloric Sphincter / Esfínter pilórico

the region of the stomach that connects to the duodenum (the beginning of the small intestines)



does detoxification, protein synthesis, and production of biochemicals necessary for digestion; is necessary for survival; there is currently no way to compensate for the absence of liver function in the long term, although new liver dialysis techniques can be used in the short term


Gallbladder / La vesícula biliar

a small organ where bile is stored, before it is released into the small intestine. The surgical removal of the gallbladder is called a cholecystectomy


Large Intestine / Intestino grueso

(colon); the last part of the digestive system; function is to absorb water from the remaining indigestible food matter, then pass useless waste material from the body; consists of the cecum, appendix, colon, rectum, and anal canal; starts in the right iliac region of the pelvis, just at or below the right waist, where it is joined to the bottom end of the small intestine; is about 1.5 meters (4.9 ft) long


Small Intestine / intestino Delgado

is the part of the gastrointestinal tract following the stomach and followed by the large intestine, and is where much of the digestion and absorption of food takes place. It receives bile juice and pancreatic juice through the hepatopancreatic duct, controlled by Sphincter of oddi


Colon / colon

the last part of the digestive system in most vertebrates; extracts water & salt from solid wastes before they are eliminated from the body & is the site in which flora-aided (large bacterial) fermentation of unabsorbed material occurs; absorbs water, sodium and some fat soluble vitamins


Ascending Colon / Colon ascendente

one part of four sections of the large intestine; this 1st section of the large intestine is connected to the small intestine by a section of bowel called the cecum; runs through the abdominal cavity, upwards toward the transverse colon for approximately eight inches (20 cm).

One of the main functions of the colon is to remove the water and other key nutrients from waste material and recycle it back into the body. As the waste material exits the small intestine it will move into the cecum and then the ascending colon where this process of extracting starts. The waste material is moved upwards toward the transverse section of the colon by a process known as peristalsis


Transverse Colon / Colon Transverso

the part of the colon from the hepatic flexure to the splenic flexure (the turn of the colon by the spleen); hangs off the stomach, attached to it by a wide band of tissue called the greater omentum. On the posterior side, the transverse colon is connected to the posterior abdominal wall by a mesentery known as the transverse mesocolon


Descending Colon / Colon descendente

is the part of the colon from the splenic flexure to the beginning of the sigmoid colon. The function of the descending colon in the digestive system is to store feces that will be emptied into the rectum


Sigmoid Colon / Colon sigmoide

the part of the large intestine after the descending colon and before the rectum. The name sigmoid means S-shaped (see sigmoid; cf. sigmoid sinus). The walls of the sigmoid colon are muscular, and contract to increase the pressure inside the colon, causing the stool to move into the rectum


Redundant Colon / colon redundante

One variation on the normal anatomy of the colon occurs when extra loops form, resulting in up to five meters longer than normal organ


Rectum / recto

is the final straight portion of the large intestine in some mammals, and the gut in others; is about 12cm (4.7 in) long; begins at the rectosigmoid junction (the end of the sigmoid colon), at the level of the third sacral vertebra or the sacral promontory depending upon what definition is used


Cecum / el ciego

is considered to be the beginning of the large intestine. It receives chyme from the ileum, and connects to the ascending colon of the large intestine. It is separated from the ileum by the ileocecal valve (ICV) or Bauhin's valve. It is also separated from the colon by the cecocolic junction. The appendix is connected to the cecum