Flashcards in The Digestive System : Key Terms Deck (83):
an appendage; usually means the narrow tube of lymphatic tissue attached to the cecum, the vermiform (worm-like) appendix.
the fluid secreted by the liver that emulsifies fats and aids in their absorption
a blind pouch at the beginning of the large intestine
the major portion of the large intestine; extends from the cecum to the rectum and is formed by ascending , transverse, and descending portions
common bile duct
the duct that carries bile into the duodenum; formed by the union of the cystic duct and the common hepatic duct
the first portion of that small intestine
and organic catalyst; speeds the rate of chemical reactions
the muscular tube that carries food from the pharynx to the stomach
the waste material eliminated from the intestine
a sac on the undersurface of the liver that stores bile
hepatic portal system
a special circulatory pathway that brings blood directly from the abdominal organs to the liver for processing (aka portal system). The vessel that enters the livers is the hepatic portal vein (portal vein)
the terminal portion of the small intestine
the portion of the digestive tract between the stomach and the anus. It consists of the small and large intestines. It functions in digestion, absorption, and elimination of waste. The bowel.
the middle portion of the small intestine
a lymphatic capillary in a villus of the small intestine. Lacteals absorb digested fats into the lymph
the terminal portion of the the digestive tract, consisting of the cecum, colon, rectum, and anus. It stores and eliminates undigested waste material.
the large gland in the upper right abdomen. In addition to many other functions, it secretes bile needed for digestion and absorption of fats.
lower esophageal sphincter (LES)
muscle tissue at the distal end of the esophagus (gastroesophageal junction) that prevents stomach contents from refluxing into the esophagus. aka cardiac sphincter
the oral cavity; contains the tongue and the teeth. Used to take in and chew food, mix it with saliva, and move it toward the throat to be swallowed
the roof of the mouth; the partition between the mouth and the nasal cavity. Consists of an anterior portion formed by the bone, the hard palate, and a posterior portion formed of tissue, the soft palate
a large, elongated gland posterior to the stomach. It produces hormones that regulate sugar metabolism and also produces digestive enzymes
wave-like contractions of an organ's walls; moves material through an organ or duct
the large serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and supports the abdominal organs
the throat; a common passageway for food entering the esophagus and air entering the larynx
the stomach's distal opening into the duodenum. The opening is controlled by a ring of muscle, the pyloric sphincter
the distal portion of the large intestine. It stores and eliminates indigested waste
the clear secretion released into the mouth that moistens food and contains a starch digesting enzyme. Saliva is produced by three pairs of glands: the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands.
the portion of the intestine between the stomach and the large intestine; comprises the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. Accessory organs secrete into the small intestine, and almost all digestion and absorption occur there.
distal S-shaped portion of the large intestine located between the descending colon and the rectum
a muscular sac-like organ below the diaphragm that stores food and secretes juices that digest proteins
the fleshy mass that hangs from the soft palate; aids in speech production ("little grape")
tiny projections in the lining of the small intestine that absorb digested foods into the circulation
the distal opening of the digestive tract
inflammation of the appendix
accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity ; a form of edema. May be caused by heart disease, lymphatic or venous obstruction, cirrhosis, or changes in blood plasma composition
condition resulting from chronic esophagitis, as caused by gastroesophageal reflux disease. Inflammatory injury can lead to esophageal spasms, scarring, strictures, and increased risk of cancer. Aka Barrett esophagus
acute abdominal pain cause by gallstones in the bile ducts
a pigment released in the breakdown of hemoglobin from red blood cells; mainly excreted by the liver in bile
inability to absorb food containing gluten, a protein found in wheat and some other grains; caused by an excess immune response to gluten
inflammation of the gallbladder
the condition of having stones in the gallbladder; also used to refer to stones in the common bile duct
chronic liver disease with degeneration of liver tissue
a chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract usually involving the ileum and colon
the frequent passage of watery bowel movements
the presence of diverticula, especially in the colon
inflammation of diverticula (small pouches) in the wall of the digestive tract, especially in the colon
difficulty in swallowing
an abnormal passageway between two organs or from an organ to the body surface, such as between the rectum and the anus (anorectal fistula)
inflammation of the stomach and intestine
gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
condition caused by reflux of gastric juices into the esophagus resulting in heartburn, regurgitation, inflammation, and possible damage to the esophagus; caused by weakness of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES)
a warm or burning sensation felt behind the sternum and radiating upward. Commonly associated with GERD. Medical name: pyrosis.
varicose veins in the rectum associated with pain, bleeding, and sometimes rectal prolapse; piles
inflammation of the liver; commonly caused by a viral infection
enlargement of the liver
a protrusion of the stomach through the opening (hiatus) in the diaphragm through which the esophagus passes
intestinal obstruction. May be caused by lack of peristalsis (paralytic ileus) or by contraction (dynamic ileus). Intestinal matter and gas may be relieved by insertion of a drainage tube
slipping of one intestinal segment into another part below it. Occurs mainly in male infants and the ileocecal region. May be fatal if untreated for more than one day.
a yellowish color of the skin, mucous membranes, and whites of the eye caused by bile pigments in the blood. The main pigment is bilirubin, a byproduct of erythrocyte destruction.
white patches on mucous membranes, as on the tongue or cheeks, often resulting from smoking or other irritants; may be precancerous
an unpleasant sensation in the upper abdomen that often precedes vomiting. Typically occurs in digestive upset, motion sickness, and sometimes early pregnancy.
blood present in such small amounts that it can be detected only microscopically or chemically; in the feces, a sign of intestinal bleeding (occult: "hidden")
inflammation of the pancreas
a lesion in the mucous membrane of the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum caused by the action of gastric juice
inflammation of the peritoneum, the membrane that line the abdominal cavity and covers the abdominal organs. May result from perforation of an ulcer, ruptured appendix, or reproductive tract infection, among other causes.
a tumor that grows on a stalk and bleeds easily
an abnormal pressure increases in the hepatic portal system. May caused by cirrhosis, infection, thrombosis, or a tumor
narrowing of the opening between the stomach and the duodenum; pylorostenosis
a backward flowing, such as the back flow of undigested food
enlargement of the spleen
chronic ulceration of the rectum and colon; the cause is unknown, but may involve autoimmunity
twisting of the intestine resulting in obstruction. Usually involves the sigmoid colon and occurs most often in children and in the elderly. May be caused by congenital malformation, a foreign body or adhesion. Failure to treat may result in death.
a passage or communication between two vessels or organs. May be normal or pathological or may be created surgically
use of barium sulfate as a liquid contrast medium for fluoroscopic or radiographic study of the digestive tract. Can show obstruction, tumors, ulcers, hiatal hernia, and motility disorders, among other conditions.
surgical removal of gallbladder
a system for staging colorectal cancer based on degree of bowel wall penetration and lymph node involvement; severity is graded from A to C
endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)
a technique for viewing the pancreatic and bile ducts and for performing certain techniques to relieve obstructions. Contrast medium is injected into the biliary system from the duodenum before radiographs are taken
use of fiberoptic endoscope for direct visual examination. GI studies include gogastroduodenoscoypy..
an opening into the body; generally refers to an opening created for elimination of body waste. Also refers to the operation done to create such an opening