The Digestive System : Key Terms Flashcards Preview

The Digestive System (Chapter 12) > The Digestive System : Key Terms > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Digestive System : Key Terms Deck (83):
1

appendix

an appendage; usually means the narrow tube of lymphatic tissue attached to the cecum, the vermiform (worm-like) appendix.

2

bile

the fluid secreted by the liver that emulsifies fats and aids in their absorption

3

cecum

a blind pouch at the beginning of the large intestine

4

colon

the major portion of the large intestine; extends from the cecum to the rectum and is formed by ascending , transverse, and descending portions

5

common bile duct

the duct that carries bile into the duodenum; formed by the union of the cystic duct and the common hepatic duct

6

duodenum

the first portion of that small intestine

7

enzyme

and organic catalyst; speeds the rate of chemical reactions

8

esophagus

the muscular tube that carries food from the pharynx to the stomach

9

feces

the waste material eliminated from the intestine

10

gallbladder

a sac on the undersurface of the liver that stores bile

11

hepatic portal system

a special circulatory pathway that brings blood directly from the abdominal organs to the liver for processing (aka portal system). The vessel that enters the livers is the hepatic portal vein (portal vein)

12

ileum

the terminal portion of the small intestine

13

intestine

the portion of the digestive tract between the stomach and the anus. It consists of the small and large intestines. It functions in digestion, absorption, and elimination of waste. The bowel.

14

jejunum

the middle portion of the small intestine

15

lacteal

a lymphatic capillary in a villus of the small intestine. Lacteals absorb digested fats into the lymph

16

large intestine

the terminal portion of the the digestive tract, consisting of the cecum, colon, rectum, and anus. It stores and eliminates undigested waste material.

17

liver

the large gland in the upper right abdomen. In addition to many other functions, it secretes bile needed for digestion and absorption of fats.

18

lower esophageal sphincter (LES)

muscle tissue at the distal end of the esophagus (gastroesophageal junction) that prevents stomach contents from refluxing into the esophagus. aka cardiac sphincter

19

mastication

chewing

20

mouth

the oral cavity; contains the tongue and the teeth. Used to take in and chew food, mix it with saliva, and move it toward the throat to be swallowed

21

palate

the roof of the mouth; the partition between the mouth and the nasal cavity. Consists of an anterior portion formed by the bone, the hard palate, and a posterior portion formed of tissue, the soft palate

22

pancreas

a large, elongated gland posterior to the stomach. It produces hormones that regulate sugar metabolism and also produces digestive enzymes

23

peristalsis

wave-like contractions of an organ's walls; moves material through an organ or duct

24

peritoneum

the large serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and supports the abdominal organs

25

pharynx

the throat; a common passageway for food entering the esophagus and air entering the larynx

26

pylorus

the stomach's distal opening into the duodenum. The opening is controlled by a ring of muscle, the pyloric sphincter

27

rectum

the distal portion of the large intestine. It stores and eliminates indigested waste

28

saliva

the clear secretion released into the mouth that moistens food and contains a starch digesting enzyme. Saliva is produced by three pairs of glands: the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands.

29

small intestine

the portion of the intestine between the stomach and the large intestine; comprises the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. Accessory organs secrete into the small intestine, and almost all digestion and absorption occur there.

30

sigmoid colon

distal S-shaped portion of the large intestine located between the descending colon and the rectum

31

stomach

a muscular sac-like organ below the diaphragm that stores food and secretes juices that digest proteins

32

uvula

the fleshy mass that hangs from the soft palate; aids in speech production ("little grape")

33

villi

tiny projections in the lining of the small intestine that absorb digested foods into the circulation

34

anus

the distal opening of the digestive tract

35

appendicitis

inflammation of the appendix

36

ascites

accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity ; a form of edema. May be caused by heart disease, lymphatic or venous obstruction, cirrhosis, or changes in blood plasma composition

37

Barrett syndrome

condition resulting from chronic esophagitis, as caused by gastroesophageal reflux disease. Inflammatory injury can lead to esophageal spasms, scarring, strictures, and increased risk of cancer. Aka Barrett esophagus

38

biliary colic

acute abdominal pain cause by gallstones in the bile ducts

39

bilirubin

a pigment released in the breakdown of hemoglobin from red blood cells; mainly excreted by the liver in bile

40

caries

tooth decay

41

celiac disease

inability to absorb food containing gluten, a protein found in wheat and some other grains; caused by an excess immune response to gluten

42

cholecystitis

inflammation of the gallbladder

43

cholelithiasis

the condition of having stones in the gallbladder; also used to refer to stones in the common bile duct

44

cirrhosis

chronic liver disease with degeneration of liver tissue

45

Chron disease

a chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract usually involving the ileum and colon

46

diarrhea

the frequent passage of watery bowel movements

47

diverticulosis

the presence of diverticula, especially in the colon

48

diverticulitis

inflammation of diverticula (small pouches) in the wall of the digestive tract, especially in the colon

49

dysphagia

difficulty in swallowing

50

emesis

vomiting

51

fistula

an abnormal passageway between two organs or from an organ to the body surface, such as between the rectum and the anus (anorectal fistula)

52

gastroenteritis

inflammation of the stomach and intestine

53

gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

condition caused by reflux of gastric juices into the esophagus resulting in heartburn, regurgitation, inflammation, and possible damage to the esophagus; caused by weakness of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES)

54

heartburn

a warm or burning sensation felt behind the sternum and radiating upward. Commonly associated with GERD. Medical name: pyrosis.

55

hemorrhoids

varicose veins in the rectum associated with pain, bleeding, and sometimes rectal prolapse; piles

56

hepatits

inflammation of the liver; commonly caused by a viral infection

57

hepatomegaly

enlargement of the liver

58

hiatal hernia

a protrusion of the stomach through the opening (hiatus) in the diaphragm through which the esophagus passes

59

icterus

Jaundice

60

ileus

intestinal obstruction. May be caused by lack of peristalsis (paralytic ileus) or by contraction (dynamic ileus). Intestinal matter and gas may be relieved by insertion of a drainage tube

61

intussusception

slipping of one intestinal segment into another part below it. Occurs mainly in male infants and the ileocecal region. May be fatal if untreated for more than one day.

62

jaundice

a yellowish color of the skin, mucous membranes, and whites of the eye caused by bile pigments in the blood. The main pigment is bilirubin, a byproduct of erythrocyte destruction.

63

leukoplakia

white patches on mucous membranes, as on the tongue or cheeks, often resulting from smoking or other irritants; may be precancerous

64

nausea

an unpleasant sensation in the upper abdomen that often precedes vomiting. Typically occurs in digestive upset, motion sickness, and sometimes early pregnancy.

65

occult blood

blood present in such small amounts that it can be detected only microscopically or chemically; in the feces, a sign of intestinal bleeding (occult: "hidden")

66

pancreatitis

inflammation of the pancreas

67

peptic ulcer

a lesion in the mucous membrane of the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum caused by the action of gastric juice

68

peritonitis

inflammation of the peritoneum, the membrane that line the abdominal cavity and covers the abdominal organs. May result from perforation of an ulcer, ruptured appendix, or reproductive tract infection, among other causes.

69

polyp

a tumor that grows on a stalk and bleeds easily

70

portal hypertension

an abnormal pressure increases in the hepatic portal system. May caused by cirrhosis, infection, thrombosis, or a tumor

71

pyloric stenosis

narrowing of the opening between the stomach and the duodenum; pylorostenosis

72

regurgitation

a backward flowing, such as the back flow of undigested food

73

splenomegaly

enlargement of the spleen

74

ulcerative colitis

chronic ulceration of the rectum and colon; the cause is unknown, but may involve autoimmunity

75

volvulus

twisting of the intestine resulting in obstruction. Usually involves the sigmoid colon and occurs most often in children and in the elderly. May be caused by congenital malformation, a foreign body or adhesion. Failure to treat may result in death.

76

anastomosis

a passage or communication between two vessels or organs. May be normal or pathological or may be created surgically

77

barium study

use of barium sulfate as a liquid contrast medium for fluoroscopic or radiographic study of the digestive tract. Can show obstruction, tumors, ulcers, hiatal hernia, and motility disorders, among other conditions.

78

cholecystectomy

surgical removal of gallbladder

79

Dukes Classification

a system for staging colorectal cancer based on degree of bowel wall penetration and lymph node involvement; severity is graded from A to C

80

endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)

a technique for viewing the pancreatic and bile ducts and for performing certain techniques to relieve obstructions. Contrast medium is injected into the biliary system from the duodenum before radiographs are taken

81

endoscopy

use of fiberoptic endoscope for direct visual examination. GI studies include gogastroduodenoscoypy..

82

ostomy

an opening into the body; generally refers to an opening created for elimination of body waste. Also refers to the operation done to create such an opening

83

stoma

a surgically created opening to the body surface or between organs (literally: "mouth")