The Digestive System: Supplementary Terms Flashcards Preview

The Digestive System (Chapter 12) > The Digestive System: Supplementary Terms > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Digestive System: Supplementary Terms Deck (61):
1

cardia

the part of the stomach near the esophagus, named for its closeness to the heart

2

chyme

the semiliquid partially digested food that moves from the stomach into the small intestine

3

defecation

the evacuation of feces from the rectum

4

deglutition

swallowing

5

duodenal bulb

the part of the duodenum near the pylorus; the first bend (flexure) of the duodenum

6

duodenal papilla

the raised area where the common bile duct and pancreatic duct ender the duodenum; papilla of Vater

7

greater omentum

a fold of the peritoneum that extends from the stomach over the abdominal region

8

hepatic fleuxure

the right bend of the colon, forming the junction between the ascending colon and the transverse colon

9

ileocecal valve

a valve-like structure between the ileum of the small intestine and the cecum of the large intestine

10

mesentery

the portion of the peritoneum that folds over and supports the intestine

11

mesocolon

the portion of the peritoneum that folds over and supports the colon

12

rugae

the large folds in the stomach's lining seen when the stomach is empty

13

sphincter of Oddi

the muscular ring at the opening of the common bile duct into the duodenum

14

splenic flexure

the left bend of the colon, forming the junction between the transverse colon and the descending colon

15

achalasia

failure of smooth muscle to relax, especially the lower esophageal sphincter, so that food is retained in the esophagus

16

achlorhydria

lack of hydrochloric acid in the stomach; opposite is hyperchlorhydria

17

anorexia

loss of appetite. Anorexia nervosa is a psychologically induced refusal or inability to eat

18

aphagia

inability to swallow or difficulty in swallowing; refusal or inability to eat

19

aphthous ulcer

an ulcer in a mucous membrane, as in the mouth

20

bruxism

clenching and grinding of the teeth, usually in deep sleep

21

bulimia

excessive, insatiable appetite. A disorder characterized by overeating followed by induced vomiting, diarrhea, or fasting

22

cachexia

profound ill health, malnutrition, and wasting

23

cheilosis

cracking at the corners of the mouth, often caused by B vitamin deficiency

24

cholestasis

stoppage of bile flow

25

constipation

infrequency or difficulty in defecation and the passage of hard, dry feces

26

dyspepsia

poor or painful digestion

27

eructation

belching

28

familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP)

a heredity condition in which multiple polyps form in the colon and rectum, predisposing to colorectal cancer

29

flatulence

condition of having gas or air in the GI tract

30

flatus

gas or air in the GI tract; gas or air expelled through the anus

31

hematemesis

vomiting of blood

32

IBS

irritable bowel syndrome : a chronic stress-related disease characterized by diarrhea, constipation, and pain associated with rhythmic intestinal contractions. Mucous colitis; spastic colon

33

megacolon

an extremely dilated colon. Usually congenital but may occur acute ulcerative colitis

34

melena

black tarry feces resulting from blood in the intestines. Common in newborns. May also be a sign of GI bleeding

35

obstipation

extreme constipation

36

pernicious anemia

a form of anemia caused by the stomach
s failure to secrete intrinsic factor, a substance needed for the absorption of vitamin B12

37

pilonidal cyst

a dermal cyst in the sacral region, usually at the top of the cleft between the buttocks. May become infected and begin to drain

38

thrush

fungal infection of the mouth or throat caused by Candida; appears as mucosal white patches or ulcers

39

Vincent disease

severe gingivitis with necrosis associated with the bacterium Treponema Vincentii ; necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis; trench mouth

40

appendectomy

surgical removal of the appendix

41

briatrics

the branch of medicine concerned with prevention and control of obesity and associated diseases

42

bariatric surgery

surgery to reduce the size of the stomach and reduce nutrient absorption in the treatment of morbid obesity. Most common: gastric bypass surgery, which involved division of the stomach and anastomosis of its upper part to the small intestine (jejunum). Other methods: gastric stapling, partitioning of the stomach with rows of staples and gastric binding, which involves a laparoscopic placement of an adjustable loop (Lap-band) that reduces stomach capacity

43

Billroth operations

Gastrectomy with anastomosis of the stomach to the duodenum (Billroth I) or to the jejunum (Billroth II)

44

gavage

process of feeding through a nasogastric tube into the stomach

45

lavage

washing out of a cavity; irrigation

46

manometry

measurement of pressure; pertaining to the GI tract, measurement of pressure in the portal system as a sign of obstruction

47

Murphy sign

inability to take a deep breath when fingers are pressed firmly below the RT arch of the ribs (below the liver). Signifies gallbladder disease

48

NG tube

nasogastric tube: tube that is passed through the nose into the stomach. May be used for emptying the stomach, administering medication, giving liquids, or sampling stomach contents

49

parenteral hyperalimentation

complete intravenous feeding for one who cannot take in food. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN)

50

percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube

tube inserted into the stomach for long -term feeding

51

vagotomy

interruption of vagal nerve impulses to reduce stomach secretions in the treatment of a gastric ulcer. Originally done surgically but may also be done with drugs

52

antacid

agent that counteracts acidity, usually gastric acidity

53

antidiarrheal

drug that treats or prevents diarrhea by reducing intestinal motility or absorbing irritants and soothing the intestinal lining

54

antiemetic

agent that prevents or relieves nausea and vomiting

55

antiflatulent

agent that relieves or prevents flatulence

56

antispasmodic

agent that relieves spasms, usually of smooth muscle

57

emetic

an agent that causes vomiting

58

histamine H2 antagonist

drug that decreases secretion of stomach acid by interfering with action of histamine at H2 receptors. Used to treat ulcers and other GI problems. H2 - receptor- blocking agent.

59

laxative

agent that promotes elimination from the large intestine. Types include stimulants, substances that retain water (hyperosmotics), stool softeners, and bulk- forming agents.

60

proton pump inhibitor (PPI)

agent that inhibits gastric acid by blocking the transport of hydrogen ions (protons) into the stomach

61

bolus

a mass, such as the rounded mass of food that is swallowed