Flashcards in The English Civil War🇬🇧⚔ Deck (27)
Name FOUR things about the puritans!
-They were very religious.
-They liked reading the bible.
-They wore dark clothes.
-They disliked dancing, singing or drinking on Sunday's.
What was the Puritan's demand and why was this?
The Puritan's demand was: to get rid of Laud. Archbishop Laud was the head of the Church of England and Puritans were suspicious that he and King Charles were secret Roman Catholics.
They wanted this because they felt that the Church of England was too like the Roman Catholic Church.
Give THREE points about who the Puritans were!
-The Puritans were a very strict (extreme) type of Protestant who were around in the 16th and 17th centuries.
-They believed that the Church had become corrupt and sinful.
-They wanted to purify religion by using the Bible as the word of law on earth.
Why did the Civil War START?
The Civil War started because of a fall-out between Charles I and Parliament. Charles spent lots of money on find clothes and other such luxuries, and when he asked Parliament for more money (so that he could prepare for war), they refused. They knew of his ways with money and thought it foolish to hand money over to such a man. So Charles tried to handle the matter alone, asking people to pay taxes to him so he could construct ships for battle. This is how the Civil War began!
What are the BACKGROUND events of the Civil War?
-The King refuses to work with Parliament, 1629.
-Parliament is critical of the Queen who is French and a Roman Catholic.
-The King is also the King of Scotland and annoys the Scots by trying to ban Presbyterianism there.
-Money has to be spent on calming down the Scots.
What happened in the 1642 crisis?
1. 1640- Charles was short of money so he had recalled Parliament and demanded money.
2. Parliament had not been allowed to operate for 11 years. It was angry with the King and let him know it.
3. 1642- Charles was angry because it criticised him. He decided to arrest the ring leaders.
4. Pym, Hampden and Cromwell were all to be arrested.
Give FIVE points about the Royalists!
-Supporters of the Anglican Church - this included people from all social classes.
-Many country people.
Give FIVE points about the Parliamentarians!
-Puritans. (+ Puritan MP's)
-Merchants, gentlemen and townspeople who resented the nobles.
-Most of the people who lived in large cities or towns, including London.
Name the SEVEN key battles of the English Civil War!
1. 1642- The Royalists had some early successes. At the battle of Edgehill, the King's cavalry won.
2. 1643- The first battle of Newbury.
3. 1644- Cromwell wins at Marston Moor. At the end of 1644 the New Model Army was formed.
4. 1645- Battle of Naseby, Royalists suffered heavy losses.
5. 1646- The King surrenders to the Scottish army.
6. 1647- The King refuses to accept Parliament's proposal.
7. 1649- The King is finally put on trial and condemned to death as a 'tyrant, traitor, murderer and public enemy.'
What side was Charles I on, Royalist or Parliamentarian?
What side was Oliver Cromwell on, Royalist or Parliamentarian?
What side was Prince Rupert on, Royalist or Parliamentarian?
What side was Thomas Fairfax on, Royalist or Parliamentarian?
Give facts about the battle of Edgehill!
-It took place on the 23rd October 1642.
-It was the first major battle of the Civil War.
-Both sides fought for a long time, but neither won.
-Prince Rupert became a cavalry hero at this battle.
Give facts about the battle of Marston Moor!
-It took place on the 2nd July 1644.
-The Royalists had a new 'Ironside' army which was as good as Parliaments.
-The City of York had to give in to Parliament.
-Now the Roundheads controlled the North of England.
-Both armies are now evenly matched.
Who won the battle of NASEBY and why?
The battle of Naseby was won by the Parliamentarians. This was because they had their 'New Model Army' who 'crushed' the Royalist army. Charles was captured in England.
Name FOUR major events that are on the Civil War timeline!
1. 1648- Charles and Royalists lose battle of Marston Moor.
2. 1647- Charles captured and imprisoned.
3. 1648- Charles negotiates secretly with the Scots and tries to escape.
4. 1649- Parliament tries Charles for treason.
Name two events of Charles's trial!
-Charles was put on trial on 20 January 1649, in Westminster Hall.
-A HIGH COURT OF JUSTICE was set up with 135 COMMISSIONERS, but on the first day only 65 turned up!
-The execution was fixed for 30 January. Of the original 135 commissioners, only 59 signed the death warrant.
What was Charles I charged for?
- For starting a war against Parliament and his people.
What was the result of all this?
Oliver Cromwell then ruled England as Lord Protector.
What is a CIVIL WAR?
-A war between political factions or regions within the same country.
-A war between citizens of the same country.
Name one ADVANTAGE and one DISADVANTAGE of a MUSKET:
+ the blunt ends could be used in combat
- they could only fire about once a minute
Name one ADVANTAGE and one DISADVANTAGE of the CAVALRY:
+ the cavalry could move quickly and change position of attack
- it was difficult to find men who could handle horses and fight
as well, at the same time
Name one ADVANTAGE and one DISADVANTAGE of a CANNON:
+ could inflict heavy damage on an enemy
- could only fire once every 3 minutes
Name one ADVANTAGE and one DISADVANTAGE of a PIKE:
+ was useful for keeping horses away from a large group of
- it was easy to move round the pike in an open space
What year was Charles captured and imprisoned?