Flashcards in The Freudian Revolution Deck (42):
Freud is the founder of what technique?
repressed desires are brought to consciousness to reveal emotional disturbance, and used dream analysis and free association to do this.
What did Freud believe dicated human behavior?
The unconscious; instinctual drives & sexual urges
Where did Freud believe illness came from?
Feelings of guilt from repressing instinctual urges
Why was Freud controversial and exciting?
Because of his attention on sex and erotic behavior (like homosexuality, fetishism, and voyeurism)
Describe Freud's two types of infant sexuality
Oedipus Complex & Electra Complex
List the 3 parts of Freud's Tripartite Psyche
Id, Ego & Superego
Explain what the Id does
the seat of human instincts and the source of all physical desires, including nourishment and sexual satisfaction. It seeks fulfillment and is the force of the unconscious
Explain what the Ego does
is the administrator of the id, it is the manager that attempts to adapt the needs of the id to the real world. It mediates between possibly destructive desires and social necessity. We get civilization because of the ego.
Explain what the Superego does
- is the moral monitor commonly called “the conscience.” It monitors human behavior according to values and principles from parents, teachers and other authority figures.
According to Freud, what are our two reasons for living?
1) Aims for absence of pain/unpleasure
2) But to experience a strong sense of pleasure of happiness
Explain Freud's term "mild contentment"
_____ happiness doesn’t come from a _____ situation but episodes that ______ from the everyday state of things.
Intense; static; contrast
List Freud's three areas of unhappiness
1) Our own physical body which will die and can be weakened by illness
2) The external world which hits us with forces of destruction
3) Our human relationships with each other (which can be the most painful)
Explain Freud's term "organic"
Natural or a part of us
How does the term "organic" apply to Freud's ideas on unhappiness?
Freud says to keep in mind that suffering is an organic sensation so in some ways he’s saying we control it.
What are Freud's three ways to cope with suffering?
2) Physical and Intellectual Hard Work
3) Create our own delusion
Explain "Intoxication" as a coping mechanism.
Easy and effective is intoxication by drugs, the media, etc. to withdraw from reality but this is flawed and wasteful though open to all of us
Explain "Physical and Intellectual Hard Work" as a coping mechanism.
Physical and intellectual work for example an artist’s joy in creation is another way which is socially acceptable but limited to only those with great ability
Explain "Create our own delusion" as a coping mechanism.
To turn away from the world and create your own world. You create a delusional world to your liking either individually (as a hermit or ascetic) or communally (in a group). A group delusion is religion since one path or belief is imposed on everyone says Freud
How are technological innovations, a coping mechanism?
Allow us to control or overpower nature and seem and so seem to produce happiness but the happiness is cheap and fleeting and doesn’t solve the real problem says Freud.
What do critics say about Freud?
his methods are untestable, sexist, patriarchal and that his methods flat don’t work. He was a visionary but disputed.
Who was Carl Gustave Jung?
Another psychologist who thought Freud was too narrow so he expanded and redeveloped Freud’s views.
What was Jung's basic ideology?
Jung believed that an individual’s personal unconscious urges (or life) rested on a deeper more universal human basis. In other words we all share the same foundational drives or psyche.
Define collective unconscious.
The universal layer of the human psyche or an underlying shared unconscious that all humans have that appears as myths, dreams, and fairytales
“primal patterns” that are like blueprints of the psychic needs of the human species ex. the hero, the wise old man or woman, the questing figure, etc.
What were some characteristics of literature during this time period?
1) Interior world of dreams, memory, and desires, and the writing is disjointed.
2) The narrative is interrupted by various unconnected thoughts reflections, etc. Reality and fantasy alternate freely.
3) The actual story of the characters is unimportant, but their concerns (though ordinary and commonplace) are obsessive and bizarre. .
Define Interior Monologue/Stream of Consciousness
gives the ideas, thoughts or ramblings of a character in quick succession based on conscious and unconscious stimuli
Define magical (or magic) realism.
A literary style (that also appears in reference to art) in which fantastic occurrences are interwoven with realistic and historical events to obscure the distinctions between reality and fantasy. A form used primarily in Latin America, founded by Miguel Angel Asturias in his novel Men of Maize
Define Concrete Poems.
poems produced in the shape of external objects
Summarize Franz Kafka’s “The Metamorphosis”-
This work could be considered to look at the struggle of the flawed human (Gregor) with the outside world. He is weak, flawed and obsessed with work so unable to deal with his outside world that is technologically advancing and changing. Also, he may not be able to deal with the “world” of his own family and job. He cannot stand up to them so is made unattractive and a bug, separated from everyone
See how this fits the characteristics of the literature of the time, absurd and a character obsessed with the ordinary (getting to work) but placed in a fantastic or unrealistic situation. The genre or type could be magical realism though it doesn’t fit exactly all qualifications because the writer isn’t of Latin American descent, but we still will put it there.
Summarize James Joyce's excerpt on Ulysses
This is an example of interior monologue/stream of consciousness because of the flow of thoughts, though disjointed, that are provided to us the reader.
Summarize Gabriel Garcia Marquez's "A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings"
This story is definitely an example of magical realism because it fits the definition perfectly—the mix of the realistic and everyday with the couple with the sick child and the angel with the decrepit wings. Notice the symbolism here with the old man who doesn’t appear as a typical angel should. What could Marquez be saying with this symbol? Perhaps he is saying how we shun or ostracize those who are different even if we seem to desire their presence at first. Also, he is looking at the extraordinary in the commonplace by saying how special this seemingly less than ordinary man is.
Summarize E.E. Cummings "Anyone who lived in a quiet town"
He is actually telling a story of the relationship between a man (anyone) and a woman (no one) who are just ordinary people, a couple, who aren’t remarkable. They die, first the husband and then the wife. The kids notice them at first but then as they grow up they don’t even notice them. This looks at the desolation of being anonymous and ordinary. Time passes regardless of who we are or how important. The important things of childhood pass. Rather a sad commentary. No real type that this falls into but an interesting look at the ordinary but told in an interesting rather disjointed way like stream of consciousness.
Summarize E. E. Cummings "r-p-o-p-h-e-s-s-a-g-r"
He is describing the hopping of a grasshopper who hops and lands, notice how your eyes have to move or hop along the page to follow it. This poem is definitely an example of concrete poetry because of the placement of the words on the page.
How did Freud influence art?
Repressed dreams, desires—in fact the whole interior world is expressed in the artwork presented here. All of these artists are combining two ideas or divergent concepts of some form in their artwork. Often this is expressed in some way as the commonplace mixed with fantasy or the extraordinary.
Explain: Edvard Munch (The Scream)- Expressionist
This work has become symbolic of the modern condition with its cry due to stress, angst, suffering (as Freud would say). It is all expressed here and we as a society can identify with it. It also expresses the artist’s own neurosis.
Explain:Giorgio de Chirico (The Archaeologists)- Metaphysical art and fantasy
His work has a dreamlike effect due to his contradictory perspectives (common objects are not in their proper height or size so are exaggerated appearing in unexpected ways) and use of shadows. This is the artistic version of Kafka so an artistic type of magical realism (Not necessary to know this type or genre for art though!) The bodies of the archaeologists are distinct but out of proportion and their torsos are longer than their extremities. The excavations are inside of them. What could this be saying? *Later, he moved away from this style
Explain: Marcel Duchamp (The Fountain and L.H.O.O.Q.)- Dada
This type of art and his work made art that was a product of chance or outrageous behavior and deliberately violated good taste, class and artistic convention. He/they created the absurd. He reflected the use of nihilism which is the “denial of traditional and religious moral principles.” Kind of like taggers (graffiti artists) today perhaps who defile buildings only he does it with established artwork. See how he takes a urinal and makes it art or paints a mustache on the Mona Lisa. He is making us question our artistic assumptions.
Explain: Salvador Dali (Geopoliticus: Child Watching the Birth of a New Nation)- Visionary surrealism
surrealism He wanted to shock and used ideas from his own dreams and erotic fantasies. He drew detailed natural and unnatural images but placed them in unrealistic or strange settings or distorted the image. See how he takes some recognizable figures the mother and child, the world with continents in egg shape and gives us something to work with but in distortion. What could he be saying about the world since this is done in 1943, right around WWII? (a little later than most)
Explain: Georgia O’Keefe (Flowers-2 examples, Cow’s skull with flower)- Surrealist and an American regionalist
She really uses yonic (opposite of phallic so representing the vagina, very sexual) symbols with the use of flowers in full bloom. Also, there is a beauty of nature here, though the cow’s skull could hint at death.