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Flashcards in the global shift- china adv and dis Deck (10)
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investments in infrastructure

- china invested heavily in its infrastructure
- has the worlds longest highway network
- rail system that links all provinces and cities
- hsr has doubled in length in 10 years linking major cities
- shanghais maglev is the fastest commercial train (268mph) taking 8 mins from cbd to the airport
- 82 airports have been built since 2000 (now 250 in total). 8 of the worlds top 12 airports by freight tonnage.


pollution and health problems

- caused mainly by coal power stations, many cities have regular pollution alerts
- 70% of rivers and lakes are now polluted.
- 207 tributaries from the Yangtze are so polluted they can't be used for irrigation or drinking.
- 100 cities suffer from extreme water shortages and 360mn don't have access to clean water.
- tap areas has 80 out of 101 forbidden toxins
- 1/3 of the pop breathes in air that would be unhealthy by us or European standards


an increase in unplanned settlements

- rapid industrialisation and urbanisation has created a need for more housing resulting in an increase in informal homes
- an increase in land process has made affordable homes hard to find. this has caused: expanding houses in villages close to the edge of cities and villagers adding an extra story to their house and rent it to migrant workers; farmland is privately developed for housing without permission


over-exploitation of resources and resource pressure

- china has coal, oil and metals such as iron ore but not enough
- supply can't keep up with demand for increased industrialisation and need for material for the built environment. the gov have to teach elsewhere: amazon for soy; Venezuela for oil; Congo for Colton
- this search for additional resource is creating widespread environmental damage


loss of biodiversity

- (2015, WWF) vertebrae pop declined by 50%
- (UN) the Yellow Sea and S.China sea are the most degraded marine areas
- 36% of forests are facing pressure from urban expansion


reductions in poverty

- 300mn people are now middle-class
- no of consumer items has risen
- no of people living in poverty reduced by 680mn from '81 to '10
- remittances has decreased rural poverty


loss of productive farmland

- increased loss of farmland from raid industrialisation
- most farmland is lost due to pollution. 3mn hc polluted by heavy metal
- farmland close to rivers closed due to risk of pollution from fertilisers and pesticides
- rapid urbanisation created a loss of farm workers which has decreased production
- overproduction is some areas has created desertification and a further loss of productive land
- rural famers are 40% more likely to suffer from liver cancer due to exposure to heavily polluted land and water


increase in urban incomes

- economic growth and slow population growth has led to urban incomes rising as pay rises
- urban incomes have increased by 10% a year since '05
- in '14 the average urban income had risen to $9000 a year
- the urban workers also receive good terms and conditions- 40hr working week, overtime payments, paid holidays
- there is a big and growing urban/rural divide


better education and training

- education is free and compulsory
- 94% of chinese over 15 are literate compared to 30% in '50
- in '14 7.2mn graduated from uni 15x higher than '00
- this was a plan by the gov to create an equated and innovate workforce
- spending still varies between rural areas (£2200-£300)


land degradation

- over 40% of farmland is now suffering from degradation
- industrial emission are creating acidic soils in the south
- land clearance for industry has led to deforestation
- over-intensive grazing has created degradation and then desertification