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Flashcards in The Great Peninsular Kingdom Deck (24)
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1

The Reconquista 13th-14th centuries (morado)

-1212; Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa was crucial to continue with the Reconquista. Only Granada remained as a Muslim kingdom.

2

CASTILE (morado)

-They conquered Guardiana and Guadalquivir valleys with Ferdinand lll and Alfonso X.
-Also they conquered: Baya, Extremadura, Huelva, Cadiz and Tarifa.
-From 14th century: Reconquista stopped. The following years a border was created with the last Muslim kingdom: Granada.

3

ARAGÓN (morado)

-France tried to conquer the Rosillon.
-Mallorca, Menorca, Ibiza, Valencia, and Alicante were conquered.
-Aragón and Castile signed the theatry of Almiza and Murcia became part of Castile.

4

CROWN OF CASTILE (verde)

-1230, Leon and Castile united into the Crown of Castile.

5

CROWN OF CASTILE (verde)
Goverment Of The Kingdom

3 institutions:-KING: Full of power-2 most important power: collect taxes, raise armies.
-CORTES: A representation of the kingdom farmed by nobles, clergy and bourgeasie. Main function: Po approve heco taxes.
-MUNICIPALITIES: A group of people that govern a city or tocon. They are called “regidores”. The king also elected “carregidores” to ensure that in the municipalities were acting according to his decissions.

6

CROWN OF CASTILE (verde)
Livestock Farming Economy

-Agriculture was important: Grapevines, cerealsad, olive trees.
- Merino sheep farming was a crucial activity. Sheeps were owned by nobility and the king protected their interests caith the Mesta in 1237.

7

CROWN OF CASTILE (verde)
Stratified society

-14th C: 4 million in habitants divided into privileged and non privileged, Jews and Muslims were Minorities.

8

CROWN OF CASTILE(verde)
Fuction of Cortes

-Cortes were meeting a Hended by nobility cleargy and borgueoisie (represanting cities)
-Cortes approved taxes BUT first they represented some complaints to the king. If the king approved them, they would raise taxes. If not, some problems appeared.

9

CROWN OF ARAGÓN (rosa)

It was composed by 4 territories (Aragón, Catalonia, Valencia and Mallorca) which had their own laws and institutions.

10

CROWN OF ARAGÓN (rosa)
One Crown, Several Kingdoms

According to these differences, the king governed not imposing but regonating with the Cortes - PACTISMO

11

CROWN OF ARAGÓN (rosa)
Institutions

-ROYAL COURT: King +
-VICEROY: King’s + representative in each kingdom.
-CORTES: One in each kingdom. To approve taxes.
-GENERALIDAD: Permanent commission of cortes that governed the kingdom.

12

CROWN OF ARAGÓN (rosa)
Commercial dynamism

-Agriculture and livestock farming were important: Wheat grapevines and olives. BUT the bourgeoisie was very dynamic. They produced clothes to export and made huge profits.

13

CROWN OF ARAGÓN (rosa)
Growth Of The Bourgeisie

The privileged groups (nobility and cleargy) were inconfrontal with the bourgeoisie, wich demmanded more power. In Barcelona, the bourgeoisie could take part in the Government of city hall.

14

CROWN OF ARAGÓN (rosa)
Mediterranean Expansion

-The bourgeoisie of the Crown of Aragón helped the king to conquer the Mediterranean area because they wanted to obtain new trade routes.
-NEW TERRITORIES: Sicily, Athens, Neopatria, Sardinia and Naples.
-These conquests usually were done by almogavars, soldiers from the Pyrinean valleys.

15

KINGDOM OF NAVARRE (Azul)

-France, Castile and Aragón tried to influence in Navarre during the Middle Ages.

16

KINGDOM OF NAVARRE (Azul)
Several dynasties, one fuero.

-1234king Sancho Vll died without an heir. Hid nephew Theobold of Champagne became the new king. He was French.
-The new king had to agree the Frevo General to be the king. This document contained the rights and duties of Navarre people.
-This agreement was also agreed in the meeting of Cortes in 1253.
- More dynasties from France governed Navarre: Captain+Eureuv and Charles lll of Erreux was considered the best king.

17

KINGDOM OF NAVARRE (azul)
Institutions

KING: Governed the kingdom. His power was limited by Cortes and Fuero.
ROYAL COUNCIL: Advisors that helped the king to govern.
CORTES: Approved the taxes and made laws.
CORT: Supreme tribunal of Justice.
CÁMARA DE COMPTOS: Collected taxes and minted coin.

18

KINGDOM OF NAVARRE (azul)
Districts and social group

-Navarre had 150.000 inhabitants and was divided into 6 Merindades or districts: Pamplona, Estell, Olite, Tudala, Sanguese and Ultrapuertos (in France).
-The nobility was very powerful and rich (ricoshombres) and vews and Mudejars were important in cities.

19

KINGDOM OF NAVARRE (azul)
DUAL ECONOMY

Livestoock and vegetable farming were important in the south the Camino de Santiago stimulated the trade and artisonstrip

20

KINGDOM OF NAVARRE (azul)
Agramonteses vs Beaumonteses

In 1441 the queen Blanche died. According to the Fuero her son Charles must have been the king. BUT his father John ll of Aragón disagreed and the war started. That lasted from 1441 to 1456.
Agramonteses: Nobles from the Pyrenees. Defond the livestock farming
Beaumonteses: Powerful farming nobles from the South.
A->John ll VS B-> Charles
-In 1479 John ll died and the throne was for his daughter Eleanor, who also died soon. So Catherine of Foix became the queen and had a French origin.
-In 1512 Ferdinand the Catholic conquered Navarre and united it to castle.

21

CIVIL WARS IN CASTILE AND ARAGÓN
Conflicts In The Crown Of Aragón

-In 1410, the king Martin “the humane” died without an heir.
-So, the nobility decided to choose Ferdinad of Antequera as king by singing an agreement, the compromise of Castile in 1412.
-In this century, nobles made a lot of feudal abuses to peasants, who had to pay more money. Because of that they made some revolts.
-In cities as Barcelona, artisans and traders formed a group called “Busca” against the nobility and rich bourgeoisie, called “Biga”.
-So when John ll confronted the nobility, a civil was started.
King John ll: supported by peasants an “Busca” VS Nobility + “Biga” (rich bourgeoisie).
John won and limited the privileges of the nobility.

22

CIVIL WARS IN CASTLE AND ARAGÓN (naranja)
Conflicts in the crown of Aragón 2

In 14th Century, nobles demmanded more privileged and they supported a new dynasty, the Trastámara, to throne. Also favourities governed in castile. They were nobles in whom the king brusted.

23

1ST CIVIL WAR (naranja)

-King Peter l wanted to promote the woal industry against the nobility.
-The king’s step brother, Henry of Trastámara, promised to noble more power if they helped him to be the king against Peter.
-So, a war started and the nobles achive the victory. Henry ll became king and nobles were granted with more privileges.

24

2ND CIVIL WAR (naranja)

-When Henry IV died, his brother Alfonso, supported by his sister Isabella, fought against his nephew Joanna to be the king, accusing her of not being king’s daughter.
-When Alfonso died, Isabella challenged Joanna helped by his husband Ferdinand of Aragón and she became the queen and won the war.