What are the four M.A.I.N. causes of World War I?
Militarism, Alliance System, Imperialism, and Nationalism
What is militarism?
Countries’ focus on having giant, powerful militaries
How did the fighting in WWI differ from previous wars in Europe?
Militaries are MUCH larger
Weapons were far more advanced due to industrialization
Civilians were targeted (total war)
What were the complex web of alliances in Europe supposed to stop?
European wars that had been happening every few years
Which countries were in the Triple Alliance/Central Powers?
Germany and Austria-Hungary
Which countries were in the Triple Entente/Allied Powers?
France, Russia, England, US
How did imperialism contribute to the start of WWI?
Germany wanted to get colonies, and England and France wanted to keep theirs. The winner would get control of all of them
Which country had recently formed, and upset the balance of European power?
What is nationalism?
Intense pride in your country
How did nationalism contribute to the start of WWI? (two ways)
Made countries feel superior and were sure they would win a war
Franz Ferdinand was assassinated in an attempt to free Bosnia from Austria-Hungary
What was the name of the terrorist organization that killed Franz Ferdinand?
The Black Hand
Why did Gavrilo Princip assassinate Ferdinand?
He was trying to free Bosnia from Austria-Hungary, and thought they would join with his native Serbia
How did Austria-Hungary respond to the killing of their prince?
They threatened Serbia, and then invaded them
Which were the first two countries to go to war?
Austria-Hungary and Serbia
When does WWI officially start?
July 28, 1914
Describe the basic plan for the Schlieffen Plan?
Germany would focus on beating France first, and then focus on Russia afterwards
What is the goal of the plan?
For Germany to avoid a 2-front war
Why did England join the war?
Because Germany had invaded Belgium, who was a neutral country
How close did the Germans come to winning the war in the first month of the war?
How many miles of trenches were dug in WWI, and where were they?
5000 miles, ran along the French border from Switzerland to the English Channel
Which front is known for its extensive system of trenches?
The Western Front
Were the new weapons of war more defensive or offensive?
Why were machine guns important?
They were so good at defending, they forced soldiers to dig trenches to keep from getting shot.
THIS IS WHAT CREATED STALEMATE AND TRENCH WARFARE
THIS IS WHAT CREATED STALEMATE AND TRENCH WARFARE
Large caliber, long range gun. Similar to cannons, but much more advanced
What was the purpose of artillery?
To destroy trenches and kill the people in them
Who developed the first tank?
What was the original purpose for tanks?
To transport troops across no man’s land without getting shot
What problems did the first generation of tanks had that stopped them from being effective in WWI?
Lacked guns, armor and speed
What was the purpose of airplanes originally in the war?
To gather information about the enemy (reconnaissance)
What is a zeppelin, and what was it used for?
A hydrogen filled blimp that was used to bomb London and for reconnaissance
What city saw the first use of poison gas?
How does chlorine gas work?
Creates hydrochloric acid when it contacts any moisture, such as in the eyes, mouth and lungs
Which gas killed the most people in the war?
How did Mustard Gas work?
Creates large blisters when it contacts any moist skin
What are U-Boats?
What did Germany use submarines for?
Sinking supply ships
What are ways that you could be killed in a trench? (5)
Sniper fire, machine guns, artillery attacks, cave-ins, poison gas, disease, shell shock
Where were the trenches?
What is no man’s land?
The land between the trenches
What is Trench foot?
A disease that happens when feet are too moist and get infected and rot
Who fought on the Western Front?
France, England, the US vs. Germany
Who fought on the Eastern Front?
Germany, Austria-Hungary vs. Russia
Why did the Russians make such big gains originally?
The Russians arrived earlier than the Germans expected, and caught the Germans by surprise. The German army was still in France when Russia invaded
Who pushed the Russians to enter before they were ready? Why?
England and France, because they needed Russia to put Germany into a 2-front war
What was the biggest problem with the Russian war effort?
They were constantly undersupplied
What reasons were there for the Russian soldiers to be undersupplied?
Russia hadn’t industrialized, and they weren’t able to have the allies ship them goods and weapons
What was Russia’s main contribution to World War I, strategically?
They were a distraction to Germany and forced them into a 2-front war
Why did Russian’s revolt halfway into the war?
Because Russia was doing so badly in the war
What did the new Russian government have to do in order to quit the war?
Give Germany land
What were two reasons given against the United States not joining the war?
Thought it was Europe’s problem, not ours
War is expensive, the money would be better spent here
How did unrestricted submarine warfare help to draw the US into the war?
Germans changed from targeting supply ships, to targeting passenger ships and trying to kill civilians, which turned Americans against them
How did our loan amounts to Germany and the Allies help to draw the US into the war?
We loaned a lot more money to the Allies, that if they didn’t win and those banks would lose out on all that money
What was the Zimmerman Telegraph?
A letter to Mexico, from Germany, trying to get them to attack us as a distraction. It was the final straw and it is what got us official to join the war
What year did the US enter the war?
What happened to the Germans when the Americans entered the war?
The Germans lose quickly
When did the war officially end?
11:00, November 11, 1918
How many troops died overall? Which side had more killed?
8.5 million, the Allies
Besides the death rate, what are two other effects of WWI?
Spanish Flu, Europe was mostly destroyed, European governments were broke, the end of all the old monarchies of Europe
What treaty brought the war to a close?
Treaty of Versailles
How did the European countries want to treat the Germans after the war?
They wanted to destroy and punish Germany so they wouldn’t ever be a threat to peace again
How did Woodrow Wilson want to treat the Germans after the war ?
He wanted to treat them fairly
What happened to Germany’s colonies?
They were taken by the Allies
What happened to the German military?
It was reduced to 100,000 troops with no air force, navy or tanks
What was the War Guilt Clause and why was it so important?
It made Germany admit they were fully responsible for WWI, and therefore had to pay to fix everything
How much was the German government supposed to repay after the war?
What were three major problems with the League of Nations?
Needed a unanimous decision to do anything, Russia and Germany weren’t allowed in, and the United States didn’t join
Why did the US vote against joining the League of Nations?
We didn’t want to be in another alliance because we were becoming very isolationist again
Why did the League of Nations collapse without the support of the US?
It had no money or military
What was the effect of the Treaty of Versailles on the German people?
It caused hyperinflation and an economic collapse
Archduke of Austria Hungary that gets assassinated
Man who assassinated Ferdinand
Big four, France
Big Four, Italy
Big four, US
David Lloyd George
Big Four, England