What type of government was used before the Enlightenment?
What is Divine Right?
The idea that kings were ruling because it was God’s will
What institution was even more powerful than the royalty during the Dark Ages?
Before the Scientific Revolution, where did most knowledge come from?
Before the Scientific Revolution, all knowledge came from the Bible, Catholic Church, or the ancient Greeks.
How did we gather knowledge after the Scientific Revolution?
After the Scientific Revolution, we gained knowledge by testing theories and gathering data.
Give four examples of knowledge we learned during the Scientific Revolution.
The earth isn’t the center of the universe (heliocentric)
How did the Church respond to the Scientific Revolution?
Because they went against official church teachings, any science that the church didn’t agree with was criticized, tortured, or killed.
What is the Enlightenment?
The enlightenment is a time period of immense change. It contained an explosion of ideas that focused on individual happiness and rights through logic and reason.
What are the three largest effects of the Enlightenment?
Less religious outlook
Belief in Progress
Importance on the Individuals
What undermined the power and influence of the Catholic Church?
During the Dark Ages, whose happiness was the most important? Afterwards?
Kings and Queens, The common people
What is the social contract?
An agreement between the citizens and the government to follow rules in return for safety
What are the three Natural Rights?
According to John Locke, what is a government’s main concern?
To protect the natural rights of its citizens
What different ideas were there about how to set up a government during the Enlightenment?
Voltaire – Democracy needed to have freedom of thought, expression, and religion
Montesquieu – separation of powers
Beccaria - Believed in ending capital punishment and torture. And argued that everyone has a right to a fast and fair trial in front of a jury
Who was fighting each other during the French and Indian War?
Colonists and British vs. French and the Native Americans
What was the prize of the French and Indian War?
Control of North America
How was the French and Indian War important in bringing about the American Revolution?
The war left the English in debt, which made them try to erase by taxing the colonists. The Colonists were upset about paying taxes and not have representation. The tensions led to the Boston Tea Party, which caused the Intolerable Acts to be passed. We never could repair our relationship with Britain and began to see ourselves as enemies.
Explain how the Navigation Acts were making Britain richer.
Restricted trade to between the colonies and England. Allowed England to buy our goods at lower prices, and sell theirs at higher prices.
What is Mercantilism?
The policy of linking national security to national wealth. This made the English view the colonies as nothing more than money makers
What was the Stamp Act?
At attempt to make money by having a tax on all printed goods
Why did the British occupy Boston, and pass the rest of the Intolerable Acts?
This was done in response to the Boston Tea Party, and were meant as a punishment for the colonists
What were the Intolerable Acts?
Occupying Boston and shutting down its harbor
Disbanding the colonial government and installing a dictator
Forcing colonists to house and feed the English troops
Allowing loyalists to be tried for crimes in England
Explain how the Enlightenment ideas inspired the American Revolution.
John Locke thought that a government was only supposed to be around to protect natural rights, and if it didn’t it should be overthrown. England was only trying to make itself richer, and wasn’t protecting our rights (the Navigation Acts, the Stamp Act, not allowed us to govern ourselves, forcing us to house their troops, etc.)
In what ways can you still see the impact of the Enlightenment on the United States government?
We have a government that focuses on protecting its citizens’ happiness. Voting rights, freedoms of speech religion, press, etc. 3 branches of government, trial by jury, no illegal search and seizure, capitalism.
What is an Estate?
French social class
What things did the first and second estates have in common?
All had political power, paid no taxes, were wealthy, and there were very few of them
What were the professions sizes of the 1st and 2nd estates?
1st - Clergy (Catholic church leaders)
2nd - Royalty
What is the only quality that all 3rd estate members shared?
All lacked political power, and paid taxes
How large was the 3rd estate, and what kind of people did it encompass?
97% of the population. Included everyone from rich business owners, merchants and artisans to peasants and poor unskilled city workers and the homeless
Describe the living conditions for the peasants. Give specific examples.
Were small farmers who grew just enough food to survive on, gave half to the king. Lived in a one room house, with no windows or heat, ate anything they could find. Were very close to starvation all the time. Had no rights, were used only to make the king richer and more powerful.
What are five words that would describe the lifestyle of the second class, especially Louis and Marie Antoinette?
Answers will vary
What are four economic problems that France had before the Revolution?
Raising taxes on the citizens caused an economic collapse
Droughts killed crops and made food too expensive to buy
France spent too much money help the colonists in the American Revolution
General overspending by the king and queen on themselves
In what ways was King Louis to blame for the French Revolution?
Louis wasn’t interested in governing his country. The problems were fixable, but only with solid leadership and Louis wasn’t competent. He ignored problems until they were too late to fix.
In what two ways the did the American Revolution help to bring about the French Revolution?
France spent so much money helping us, that they ruined their own economy
The successes of our revolution, and the government that followed were an inspiration to France
How did Enlightenment ideas helped bring about the French Revolution?
John Locke thought that a government was only supposed to be around to protect natural rights, and if it didn’t it should be overthrown. French peasants were only used to make the king richer, and the government was taking away the rights of the peasants. (Taking their food, no freedoms of speech or religion, executing peasants without a trial for small crimes.)
Which Estate took power in the French Revolution?
What prompted the representatives of the Third Estate to declare themselves the new government?
When the reps from the third estate were not allowed to participate in the large meeting of the estates
What event signaled the Louis had lost his authority? Why?
Being forced from his palace back by a group of angry women
Kings with power don’t get forced to do anything against their will, especially when they are being forced by females, and they do not walk. Kings ride in carriages.
How did the Declaration of the Rights of Man change the government of France?
Got rid of estates, making all men equals
Made a parliament with the king still having power in the government
Government would focus on protecting the rights of its citizens
Who was not included in the Declaration of the Rights of Man?
Why did the revolutionary spirit stall?
Difference in the political ideas of the members of the new government didn’t allow any progress to be made towards making a functional government out of the general ideas they had laid out.
Austria invaded, scaring the peasants and leading to the “Great Fear”
Why was all of Europe scared of the French Revolution?
They were afraid that the French peasant uprising would inspire peasants in other countries, and revolt against their kings
What is the Great Fear?
Peasants were scared of the Austrian invasion, thinking they were going to punish the lower classes for overthrowing the king. Peasants formed into roving militias that killed, burned, and stole from anyone they could. There was no government to stop the bands of thieves for weeks.
How were the Jacobins able to take power?
They used the fear and lack of control in the countryside to convince people to give them power to stop the problems
How would the new Jacobin-led government be different from the past?
It would be based on equality and science
What was Maximilien Robespierre able to do because he was the head of the Commission of Public Safety?
Execute anyone who opposed the revolution, or eventually who was his own enemy
What happened to religion after the French Revolution?
The Catholic Church was outlawed, and a “Religion of Virtue” put in its place
What was the French army used for during the Reign of Terror?
To tax the citizens
How many people ended up being killed during the Reign of Terror? How many were peasants?
40,000 and about 85% came from the 3rd estate
What happened to Robespierre?
After he turned on his own inner circle, he was accused of being an enemy of the revolution and was beheaded
How does the French Revolution provide an example of the dangers of democracy?
Democracy is not an easy government to type to run. This one let fear and ignorance overrule reason and education. Another thing it teaches is the danger of not protecting minority groups and people who have opposing views as the government.
Describe the social classes in South America before the Enlightenment.
The Europeans controlled the land, were very wealthy and powerful.
The natives and slaves were treated as less than human
Where did Toussaint L’ouverture get his ideas that he used in the Haitian rebellion?
They were the same ideas as the French Revolution
What countries did South America try to copy when setting up their own new governments?
The United States, France, and Haiti
Natural rights, government’s duty is to protect those rights
People are wicked and need a strong king to keep order
Freedom of thought, expression, and religions
separation of powers in government
Democracy is important for the citizens to buy in to the government
Wrote about fair legal practices
Capitalism, people don’t need to have the government tell them how to deal with money
Last king of France
Last Queen of France
Leader of the Jacobins and the Reign of Terror
Leader of the Haitian Revolution