The home front 1939-1945 Flashcards Preview

GCSE History- Britain 1931-49 > The home front 1939-1945 > Flashcards

Flashcards in The home front 1939-1945 Deck (25):
1

What was different about world war two to other wars?

-Brought war to civilians for the first time

2

Why did the government prepare for war?

-Govt. prepared for war and invasion as early as 1935 (ministry of information planned) as Germany was also preparing, but Chamberlain tried appeasement so weren’t ready to fight in 1939
-1937 bombing in Spanish civil war showed the devastating effect it could have on people

3

How did the government prepare civilians for the war?

-Govt. made cards for cigarette packs to advise in bomb or gas attacks
-Identity cards and gas masks fitted and given out
-Blackout- streetlights turned off, windows covered, street signs taken down
-In 1939, Anderson shelters, and in 1941, Morrison shelters were introduced, and 500,000 were distributed in one year

4

What government ministries were set up to prepare for the war?

-1939- Ministry of Supply to take over vital industries
-Ministry of Food
-Ministry of Labour organised armed forces and home front

5

Who was prepared to defend and look after the home front?

-1 million members of the home guard in 1940- manned anti-aircraft guns and cleared up bomb damage
-ARP set up in 1937- put sandbags out to stop bomb damage, organised the blackout- 1939 there were 1.5 million wardens
-Emergency services trained

6

When did evacuation occur?

-Govt. knew they would bomb cities so began before war
-Sept 1st evacuation started, and by 4 days time, 3 million had been evacuated

7

Key features of evacuation

-Children, pregnant mothers and blind people were evacuated, it kept them safe and freed up parents
-Most children were evacuated with their schools and their teachers often went with them
-By Christmas, no bombing had happened so many children went back
-There was a second wave of evacuation in 1940 when the Germans started bombing London but it was on a much smaller scale

8

Why did the Germans start the Blitz?

-Battle of Britain failed so they tried to damage morale to make civilians pressure govt. into surrendering
-Allies had begun the night-bombing of Germany in August

9

When was the Blitz and where was hit?

-Sept 7th to Nov 2nd 1940
-London was constantly bombed, 16 cities were bombed, including Liverpool and Coventry

10

How did civilians cope with the Blitz?

-Built shelters or sheltered in underground
-Social activities helped morale
-WRVs provided tea and soup

11

What were the effects of the Blitz?

-Transport links, gas, electricity and water were hit heavily
-Over 43,000 people were killed
-Weakened morale, but not hugely

12

Blitz on Coventry

-14th November 1940
-Coventry was bombed because Britain bombed Munich
-The cathedral was destroyed
-500 bombers dropped thousands of bombs
-Around 500 were killed, 4,000 homes were destroyed
-Govt. knew Coventry was going to be bombed but didn’t want Germany to know they broke their code so did nothing

13

Why did the German bombing change?

-After D-Day, Germany set sights back on demoralising public
-Hitler needed good press as he was no longer fully respected

14

What new bombs did the Germans have in 1944?

-Pilotless bombs (V1 and V2) that didn’t show up on radar and couldn’t easily be shot
-They were called doodle bugs as they made a small sound, but when the noise stopped, you knew it was falling
-Only 1000 of 5000 V2s launched reached their target

15

What were the effects of the new style of German bombing?

-Scary as anti-aircraft guns and blackouts had little effect
-Demoralised hugely as people were fed up after five years

16

Propaganda in war

-Encouraged volunteers and working harder for war effort
-Warned of dangers of ‘careless talk’
-Encouraged not wasting food and materials for war effort

17

Censorship in war

-Newspapers censored, reported bombings but concentrated on heroism rather than deaths
-TV and radio told what to play
-Cinemas showed patriotic films and showed newsreels before every film
-Every piece of post sent out was checked
-Armed service had their own censors checking mail

18

Why did rationing occur?

-70% of Britain’s food was imported, so govt. began planning food control in 1936 in fear that Germans would sink ships, by Jan 1940, 100 ships had been sunk

19

When did rationing start?

-Rationing began 8th Jan 1940; everyone got the same, whether rich or poor, some had better diets than before

20

How was rationing monitored and what was rationed?

-People had ration books and registered with a shop which recorded coupons used
-Food, petrol, coal, clothing and materials were rationed

21

How did people get more food during rationing?

-People were encouraged to grow food (‘Dig for Victory’, even the moat around the Tower of London was turned into a veg. patch), and keep chickens and rabbits,
-Broadcasts gave recipes and tips to make food go further
-Black market existed- rationed food was sold for a high price

22

What were the roles of women in the army?

-Women’s sections in armed forces were ATS (army), WAAF (air force), and WRNS (navy)
-Work progressed from cleaning, cooking and office work to later, drivers, anti-aircraft posts, radio operators and spies, but they couldn’t go into battle

23

What jobs did women take up in the war?

-By March 1940, over 45,000 men had left farming for the war, so Woman’s Land Army was reformed by govt. in 1939
-Worked in engineering, iron and factories, but were nervous of the ‘male feel’ at first, and were usually supervised by men
-In 1941, govt. introduced conscription for unmarried women aged 20-30, could choose armed services, civil defence or industry
-By 1943, 10,000 women worked on the railways

24

What were the attitudes towards women working?

Women who enjoyed and did well at their work were often respected, but some still held old-fashioned views

25

Did the roles of women change after the war had ended?

-Didn’t change position of women (no equal pay), but gave taste of freedom
-Women who had been ‘minding’ jobs for servicemen had to give them up, seen as more important to find men work