Flashcards in Labour in power, 1945-1950 Deck (15):
Why did Labour win the 1945 election- Labour positives?
-Labour promised social reforms based on Beveridge report
-Labour promised welfare state and NHS- people wanted higher standards of living
Why did Labour win the 1945 election- Conservative downfalls?
-Conservatives focused on past and Churchill
-Conservatives not trusted to keep promises eg. house building
-Conservatives no longer viewed as peacetime rulers
-Conservatives been in govt. for a long while, time for change
-People had bad memories of the Conservative rule during the depression
Why did Labour win the 1945 election- citizens' wants?
-Wanted social change (women etc.)
-Wanted a higher standard of living
Origins of the Beveridge report
-Ernest Bevin set up a committee with William Beveridge as chair to suggest how to improve life in Britain
What was the response to the Beveridge report?
-Hugely popular with public, and sold over 70,000 copies in the first few days
-After the war, a copy was found in Hitler’s bunker
What were the policies of the Beveridge report?
-Recommended support of citizens ‘from cradle to the grave’
-Fight five giants: Want, ignorance, disease, squalor, idleness
Why was the Beveridge report so significant?
As the government took control of so much during the war, even Conservatives would struggle to avoid welfare responsibilities as people expected more, so it took a step towards combatting these issues
What changes were made due to the Beveridge report?
-1942- free school meals and milk
-1945- family allowance act paid 5 shillings per week for each child after first, set up by national govt. but labour took credit
-1946- National Insurance Act took NI payments to provide unemployment and sickness benefits and pensions with no limits on how long benefits could be paid for, no means test
-1946- National Assistance Act provided boards to give help to the homeless, disabled and mentally ill
When was the NHS set up?
July 1948, by the minister of health, Aneurin Bevan
Why was the NHS set up?
-War had created a need to treat large numbers of civilian casualties which gave many people access to health care
-War had brought situation of the poor to public’s attention
What were the reactions to the creation of the NHS?
-Medical profession feared state control, and didn’t think the government knew enough about their jobs
-Conservatives criticised the cost
-Doctors would have a fixed rate of pay so some approved
What were the key features of the start of the NHS?
-So many people used it, the govt. underestimated funds and resources put into it
-Many people wanted glasses (5.25 million) and false teeth (dental treatment for 8 million)
What were the benefits of the NHS?
-Infant mortality rate fell
-Free ante-natal classes
-Reduction in deaths from diphtheria and tuberculosis
What were the drawbacks of the NHS?
-Very expensive- cost £400 million to run in the first year
-Some disliked that there were still private practices, which created an unfair advantage for those who could pay