The Humanism approach Flashcards Preview

Approaches to Psychology AS AQA > The Humanism approach > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Humanism approach Deck (53)
Loading flashcards...
1
Q

What does the humanism approach look at the importance of?

A

Unique aspects of individuals

2
Q

What does the approach focus on?

A

Subjective feelings and conscious thoughts in individuals

3
Q

What is the approach known as? Why?

A

The third force in psychology

It rejects what both behaviourist and the psychodynamic approach say about behaviour

4
Q

Why does the approach reject behaviourism?

A

They say its too deterministic

5
Q

What are the assumptions of the approach?

A

People have free will and control over what we feel and how we behave - we make rational, conscious decisions
Subjective view - the experience of the world as a person has a greater importance to understanding people than the objective view

6
Q

Is the humanism approach idiographic or nomothetic?

A

idiographic

7
Q

What did Rogers develop?

A

Person centred therapy

8
Q

What ideas did Rogers develop his person centred therapy from?

A

individuals knowing self worth, accept positive regard and give it to others, have a good idea about their self concept

9
Q

What is self-actualisation?

A

A fully functioning person aware of subjective experiences and feelings whist being able to grow and change

10
Q

What are some qualities of a fully functioning person?

A
  • Open to experience
  • Existential living - wholly focused life - not focused on material things
  • Trust own feelings
  • Creative
  • Feel happy about life
11
Q

What type of people are considered fully functioning?

A

Well adjusted people

12
Q

What does an individual who has self concept have?

A

Positive feelings about themselves and are able to take on challenges

13
Q

When does self-worth develop?

A

Develops in childhood and comes from interaction from parents in childhood

14
Q

What needs does Rogers believe children need?

A

Positive self regard from mothers

Positive self worth

15
Q

What is unconditional positive regard?

A

Significant others love you and don’t withdraw the love if wrong doing occurs

16
Q

What is conditional positive regard?

A

If a child is acting in the correct manner, they will only be loved if they behave in the correct way

17
Q

What is negative regard?

A

Feeling that you can do nothing right

18
Q

What is incongruence?

A

Self image is different to the ideal self with only a slight overlap.
Hard to adjust to a normal life which links to mental illnesses

19
Q

What is congruence?

A

Ideal self and self image are closer, self actualisation is able to occur

20
Q

What are some characteristics of client centred therapy?

A
  • Therapist is congruent with the patient
  • Provides client with unconditional positive self-regard
  • Therapist is empathetic to client
21
Q

What 3 things does Rogers believe need to be present in client centred therapy in order for it to be successful?

A

1) Genuineness
2) Empathy
3) unconditional positive regard

22
Q

What does client centred therapy focus on?

A

Present rather than the past

23
Q

What did Sexton and Whinston find?

A

Effectiveness of Rogerian therapy
Effective short term, unsuccessful long term
Effectiveness is measured by the patient, its not objective

24
Q

What did Maslow propose?

A

Hierarchy of needs

25
Q

What did Maslow believe there was fulfilment through?

A

Personal growth

26
Q

What is the first need in the hierarchy?

A

Physiological needs - food, water

27
Q

What is the second need in the hierarchy?

A

Safety needs - need for security, protection, stability

28
Q

What is the third need in the hierarchy?

A

Belongingness/love - humans are a social species

29
Q

What is the 4th need in the hierarchy?

A

Self esteem needs

30
Q

What is the 5th need in the hierarchy?

A

Self actualisation - reached full potential

31
Q

How is the 5th need reached in the hierarchy?

A

all needs underneath need to be satisfied before the individual can move up the hierarchy

32
Q

What is criticism for Maslow’s hierarchy of needs?

A

It over simplifies human needs and behaviour

33
Q

Why do some people fear self actualisation?

A

It brings duties and responsibilities

34
Q

According to Maslow, what are the growth needs?

A

Striving for goodness
Helping other people
Seeking truth and justice
Striving to create beauty and order

35
Q

What are the three conditions of self actualisation?

A
  • Absence of restraints
  • Little or no distraction from deficiency needs
  • Good knowledge of self
36
Q

What type of people are self-actualisers?

A
  • Assessive
  • Creative
  • Automonous
  • Private people
37
Q

What is a peak experience?

A

Feelings of ecstasy and self-fulfillment, happen spontaneously and aren’t frequent

38
Q

Where are Maslow’s ideas influential?

A

Organisational psychology, eg. business

39
Q

What is a limitation of Maslow’s methods to gain information?

A

He interviewed people who he thought were self-actualisers
Self report
Subjective
Didn’t include people with mental disorders so couldnt say what was stopping them from researching SA

40
Q

What did Shostrum find?

A

Used a set questionnaire to measure self-actualisation. Those with low self actualisation had poor relationships with others and those with high were creative

41
Q

Which culture is the idea of self actualisation specific to? Limitation of this?

A

Western cultures

Can’t generalise to other cultures

42
Q

Who did Maslow pay too much attention to?

A

Unhealthy people

43
Q

What does the humanism approach reject and why is this a limitation?

A

Rejects scientific approach
Objective reality is less important
Less use of science and testing doesn’t have any scientific value

44
Q

Does the approach believe in reductionism or holism?

A

Holism

45
Q

What important quote is linked to holism?

A

“The whole is greater than the sum of its parts”

46
Q

Why is the lack of scientific testing a strength of the approach?

A

Normal scientific psychology is unable to capture the richness of human experience whereas the humanistic approach does and it is more empathetic because of this

47
Q

What does the humanistic approach promote?

A

A positive view of human beings with each individual being in control of their own life

48
Q

What did Goldstein 1939 say?

A

Organismic theory for holism - the mind and body are a unified whole

49
Q

What does the humanistic approach lack?

A

Empirical research to back up theories

50
Q

What does the humanistic approach have too much emphasis on and therefore reject?

A

Too much focus on self-actualisation and rejects the influence of biology on behaviour

51
Q

What criticism is there to be made about the concepts in the humanistic approach?

A

They are vague and hard to define

52
Q

What point can you include in a conclusion?

A

Emphasis on the importance of the humanistic approach to therapy, counselling, education and business

53
Q

What do the ideas in the approach reflect?

A

An individualistic self-obsessed outlook that is a part of the problem in society