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What were the dates of the Crimean War?



What were the long-term causes of the Crimean War?

The Eastern Question - who would have sphere of influence in Balkans (formerly Ottoman)

Age of nationalism + hard to define spheres of influence of great powers at time (UK, France, Austria, Russia, Prussia)

Russia concerned with potentially hostile states expanding near border

Wanted access to Mediterranean + to expand + increase influence (inc. Middle East)


What were the short-term causes of the Crimean War?

Religious arguments with the Ottomans + France over who should be major Christian power/protector in Holy Land

Culminated in Nicholas I sending troops into Wallachia + Moldova. Asked to remove by Britain, France, + Turkey but refused.

Then tried to back-track but too late! Seige of Sevastopol began (by UK + France)

The fact he tried to backtrack shows knew wasn't socially/economically ready for conflict.


What were the main events of the Crimean war?

  • 1853: Russian destruction of Turkish fleet at Sinope - 4000 Turkish deaths. Protest from Britain and France.
  • March 1854: Britain and France declare war on Russia due to failure to meet and ultimatum to leave Moldavia + Wallachia.
  • August 1854: Worried that Austria might join war against them, Russians pull out of principalities. However, Britain wanted to prolong war to force Black Sea access rights
  • Sept 1854: Britain + France invade Crimea. In some of the following battles e.g. Alma,  Russians lost 6000 troops + guns captured dated back to 1799!
  • Feb 1855: Nicholas dies + replaced by Alexander II. The Siege of Sevastopol continued to Sept 1855 - Russian losses at 2000-3000 a day! War petered out + by March 1856 renewed Austrian threats to join saw Russian surrender.


What were the military successes of the Crimean war?

Wiped out Turkish fleet at Sinope 1853 (killed 4000)


What were the military failures of the Crimean war?

Guns captured dated back to 1799

450,000 casualties - highest of all (Turkey 150,00, UK 22,000)

2000-3000 losses per day during Seige of Sevastopol



What was the political impact of the Crimean war?

Salvophiles questioned Russia's greatness

Pesuaded them that needed to Westernise as defeated by Western superiority - hence Emancipation

Shift from policy of expansionism to one of wishing to consolidate existing power

Harsh terms of Treaty of Paris could suggest Russia still posed threat

However... this could still have made slavophiles agree to reform as would lead to being even greater power


What were the social impacts of the Crimean war?

Most casualties of all belgerants - 450,000

Only 1/5 in battle, most of disease

Provided reason for emancipation

Also fears of opposition (peasant rioting) and serfdom abolishing itself 'from below'


What impact did the Crimean war have on nationalities/the minorities?

Russia had to give up claim as protector of Moldavia + Wallachia

Had to give up chunk of Bessarabia to Moldavia

Also no longer 'protector' of Christians in Holy Land


What were the economic impacts of the Crimean war?

Decreased presence in Black Sea -

Prohibited from maintaining a fleet in the Black Sea and to remove all naval fortifications along the Black Sea coastline


What other factors might have been more imortant than the Crimean war in causing change?

Fears of peasant opposition abolishing serfdom 'from below'

Alexander II educated with Western ideas so knew Russia + econ backwards


When was the Russo-Turkish war?



What were the causes of the Russo-Turkish war?

Loss of the Crimean war

Continuing Russian ambitions to dominate the area.

Immediate cause was massacre of Christian Orthodox rebels by Turkish forces in the Balkans.  Strong nationalist and Pan Slav feelings.


What were the military successes of the Russo-Turkish war?

New engineer section + navy successful

Attack on 2 fronts (Caucasus + Balkans) successful



What were the military failures of the Russo-Turkish war?

Despite successes suffered heavy casualties

Should've been easier victory

Successes overturned by Congress of Berlin...


What was the political impact of the Russo-Turkish war?

Congress of Berlin overturned more favourable Treaty of San Stefano (Russia agreed as didn't want to aggrovate other powers)

Nationalists disappointed by concessions to Austria + UK - Bosnia + Cyprus

HOWEVER little reform as mostly viewed positively - short war + won so pro-Tsar


What was the economic impact of the Russo-Turkish war?

Turkey paid war indeminty to Russia

Ended Free Trade Era as spent too much


What impact did the Russo-Turkish war have on nationalities/the minorities?

Regained South Bessarabia

Territorial gains in Caucasus


When was the Russo-Japanese war?



What were the causes of the Russo-Japanese war?

In late 1800’s Russia desired increased influence in Far East- colonial spread into crumbling Chinese Empire

Japan had taken Port Arthur in Manchuria, a warm sea port.  Russia had forced Japan to hand it over and took control of the area, promising to leave in 1903.

Negotiations failed and Japan attacked, without warning in January 1904.

Russia was expected to win with ease, expansion against an inferior race.

Russia also wanted war to deflect attention from domestic econ + political issues


What were the military successes of the Russo-Japanese war?

There weren't any


What were the military failures of the Russo-Japanese war?

Outnumbered + badly beated in Yalu

Navy couldn't break out of blockade at Port Arthur and it fell in Jan 1905.

Naval forces were defeated at Tsushima in May 1905 after 18,000 mile journey. Emphasized Japanese tech. superiority

1905 defeat at Mukden - final straw that led to signing of peace treaty



What was the political impact of the Russo-Japanese war?

1905 revolution as coincided with year of inflation, shortages, + growing dicontent

Blood Sunday protests - shattered 'Little Father' image

1905 October Manifesto - Duma.
Wouldn't have happened without war as Nick II staunchly 'Autocacy, Orthodoxy, and Nationality' + diminishing of powers swiftly showed unwillingness to embrace democracy


What was the social impact of the Russo-Japanese war?

1905 revolution due to inflation, shortages, + growing discontent

Bloody Sunday

Increasing urbanisation at the time also led to worse living conditions. Stolypin's reforms (VLS + 'Wager on the Strong') implimented


What was the economic impact of the Russo-Japanese war?

Further investment into tech + industry - beaten by technologically superior Japanese

Investment in transport- incomplete Trans-Siberian railway hadn't helped communications + mobilisation issues

Investment in industry led to increased urbanisation and thus poorer conditions... necessitating more reforms which didn't appear!

Stolypin's reforms to ease inflation, shortages, etc.


What other factors may have been more important in causing change other than the Russo-Japanese war?

Inflation, shortages, poor conditions due to increasing urbanisation. Led to 1905 revolution
(coupled with failures in war - known about due to increased media coverage)

General economic backwardness + desire to catch up with the West

Issue of land distribution!


When did the First World War occur?



What were the causes of WW1?

The Eastern Question

Unification of Germany disrupted balance of power. They desired independant glory

Triple Entente/ Alliances!

Serbs assassinate Arch Duke Franz Ferdinand


What were the military successes of WW1?

Aug + Sept 1914 - initially successful in Prussia

Feb 1916: Took Ezerum from Ottomans

1916: Brusilov Offensive initially successful



What were the military failures of WW1?

1914: Bad defeats at Tannenburg + Masurian Lakes in Prussia (after initial success)

1915: Nick II takes charge. Initially halted retreat but then had to abandon Vilna

1916: Brusilov Offensive fails + so fails to stop domestic discontent

1917: June/Kerensky Offensive fails

Aug 1917: Withdrew from strategically important Riga

Dec 1917: Brest-Litovsk talks result in signing of treaty. Trosky called it a 'diktat'