What were the dates of the Crimean War?
What were the long-term causes of the Crimean War?
The Eastern Question - who would have sphere of influence in Balkans (formerly Ottoman)
Age of nationalism + hard to define spheres of influence of great powers at time (UK, France, Austria, Russia, Prussia)
Russia concerned with potentially hostile states expanding near border
Wanted access to Mediterranean + to expand + increase influence (inc. Middle East)
What were the short-term causes of the Crimean War?
Religious arguments with the Ottomans + France over who should be major Christian power/protector in Holy Land
Culminated in Nicholas I sending troops into Wallachia + Moldova. Asked to remove by Britain, France, + Turkey but refused.
Then tried to back-track but too late! Seige of Sevastopol began (by UK + France)
The fact he tried to backtrack shows knew wasn't socially/economically ready for conflict.
What were the main events of the Crimean war?
1853: Russian destruction of Turkish fleet at Sinope - 4000 Turkish deaths. Protest from Britain and France.
March 1854: Britain and France declare war on Russia due to failure to meet and ultimatum to leave Moldavia + Wallachia.
August 1854: Worried that Austria might join war against them, Russians pull out of principalities. However, Britain wanted to prolong war to force Black Sea access rights
Sept 1854: Britain + France invade Crimea. In some of the following battles e.g. Alma, Russians lost 6000 troops + guns captured dated back to 1799!
Feb 1855: Nicholas dies + replaced by Alexander II. The Siege of Sevastopol continued to Sept 1855 - Russian losses at 2000-3000 a day! War petered out + by March 1856 renewed Austrian threats to join saw Russian surrender.
What were the military successes of the Crimean war?
Wiped out Turkish fleet at Sinope 1853 (killed 4000)
What were the military failures of the Crimean war?
Guns captured dated back to 1799
450,000 casualties - highest of all (Turkey 150,00, UK 22,000)
2000-3000 losses per day during Seige of Sevastopol
What was the political impact of the Crimean war?
Salvophiles questioned Russia's greatness
Pesuaded them that needed to Westernise as defeated by Western superiority - hence Emancipation
Shift from policy of expansionism to one of wishing to consolidate existing power
Harsh terms of Treaty of Paris could suggest Russia still posed threat
However... this could still have made slavophiles agree to reform as would lead to being even greater power
What were the social impacts of the Crimean war?
Most casualties of all belgerants - 450,000
Only 1/5 in battle, most of disease
Provided reason for emancipation
Also fears of opposition (peasant rioting) and serfdom abolishing itself 'from below'
What impact did the Crimean war have on nationalities/the minorities?
Russia had to give up claim as protector of Moldavia + Wallachia
Had to give up chunk of Bessarabia to Moldavia
Also no longer 'protector' of Christians in Holy Land
What were the economic impacts of the Crimean war?
Decreased presence in Black Sea -
Prohibited from maintaining a fleet in the Black Sea and to remove all naval fortifications along the Black Sea coastline
What other factors might have been more imortant than the Crimean war in causing change?
Fears of peasant opposition abolishing serfdom 'from below'
Alexander II educated with Western ideas so knew Russia + econ backwards
When was the Russo-Turkish war?
What were the causes of the Russo-Turkish war?
Loss of the Crimean war
Continuing Russian ambitions to dominate the area.
Immediate cause was massacre of Christian Orthodox rebels by Turkish forces in the Balkans. Strong nationalist and Pan Slav feelings.
What were the military successes of the Russo-Turkish war?
New engineer section + navy successful
Attack on 2 fronts (Caucasus + Balkans) successful
What were the military failures of the Russo-Turkish war?
Despite successes suffered heavy casualties
Should've been easier victory
Successes overturned by Congress of Berlin...
What was the political impact of the Russo-Turkish war?
Congress of Berlin overturned more favourable Treaty of San Stefano (Russia agreed as didn't want to aggrovate other powers)
Nationalists disappointed by concessions to Austria + UK - Bosnia + Cyprus
HOWEVER little reform as mostly viewed positively - short war + won so pro-Tsar
What was the economic impact of the Russo-Turkish war?
Turkey paid war indeminty to Russia
Ended Free Trade Era as spent too much
What impact did the Russo-Turkish war have on nationalities/the minorities?
Regained South Bessarabia
Territorial gains in Caucasus
When was the Russo-Japanese war?
What were the causes of the Russo-Japanese war?
In late 1800’s Russia desired increased influence in Far East- colonial spread into crumbling Chinese Empire
Japan had taken Port Arthur in Manchuria, a warm sea port. Russia had forced Japan to hand it over and took control of the area, promising to leave in 1903.
Negotiations failed and Japan attacked, without warning in January 1904.
Russia was expected to win with ease, expansion against an inferior race.
Russia also wanted war to deflect attention from domestic econ + political issues
What were the military successes of the Russo-Japanese war?
There weren't any
What were the military failures of the Russo-Japanese war?
Outnumbered + badly beated in Yalu
Navy couldn't break out of blockade at Port Arthur and it fell in Jan 1905.
Naval forces were defeated at Tsushima in May 1905 after 18,000 mile journey. Emphasized Japanese tech. superiority
1905 defeat at Mukden - final straw that led to signing of peace treaty
What was the political impact of the Russo-Japanese war?
1905 revolution as coincided with year of inflation, shortages, + growing dicontent
Blood Sunday protests - shattered 'Little Father' image
1905 October Manifesto - Duma.
Wouldn't have happened without war as Nick II staunchly 'Autocacy, Orthodoxy, and Nationality' + diminishing of powers swiftly showed unwillingness to embrace democracy
What was the social impact of the Russo-Japanese war?
1905 revolution due to inflation, shortages, + growing discontent
Increasing urbanisation at the time also led to worse living conditions. Stolypin's reforms (VLS + 'Wager on the Strong') implimented
What was the economic impact of the Russo-Japanese war?
Further investment into tech + industry - beaten by technologically superior Japanese
Investment in transport- incomplete Trans-Siberian railway hadn't helped communications + mobilisation issues
Investment in industry led to increased urbanisation and thus poorer conditions... necessitating more reforms which didn't appear!
Stolypin's reforms to ease inflation, shortages, etc.
What other factors may have been more important in causing change other than the Russo-Japanese war?
Inflation, shortages, poor conditions due to increasing urbanisation. Led to 1905 revolution
(coupled with failures in war - known about due to increased media coverage)
General economic backwardness + desire to catch up with the West
Issue of land distribution!
When did the First World War occur?
What were the causes of WW1?
The Eastern Question
Unification of Germany disrupted balance of power. They desired independant glory
Triple Entente/ Alliances!
Serbs assassinate Arch Duke Franz Ferdinand
What were the military successes of WW1?
Aug + Sept 1914 - initially successful in Prussia
Feb 1916: Took Ezerum from Ottomans
1916: Brusilov Offensive initially successful
What were the military failures of WW1?
1914: Bad defeats at Tannenburg + Masurian Lakes in Prussia (after initial success)
1915: Nick II takes charge. Initially halted retreat but then had to abandon Vilna
1916: Brusilov Offensive fails + so fails to stop domestic discontent
1917: June/Kerensky Offensive fails
Aug 1917: Withdrew from strategically important Riga
Dec 1917: Brest-Litovsk talks result in signing of treaty. Trosky called it a 'diktat'