The Knee Joint Flashcards Preview

Yr 2 Movement - term 2 and 3 > The Knee Joint > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Knee Joint Deck (81)
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1

What are the 3 main types of knee problems?

-Acute injuries
-Acute swelling/pain
-Chronic knee pain/swelling

2

What sorts of injuries are acute knee injuries?

Fracture/tear/sprain.
-e.g. sport injury

3

What causes acute swelling/pain? (3)

-Acute gout
-Flare of arthritis (oseto-/rheumatoid)
-Septic joint

4

What causes chronic knee pain/swelling? (2)

-Osteoarthritis
-Bursitis

5

What type of joint is the knee joint?

Synovial hinge joint.

6

How many bones make up the knee joint?

3.

7

Which 3 bones make up the knee joint?

-Femur (distal)
-Tibia (proximal)
-Patella

8

Which bone articulates with the tibia but is not a direct part of the knee joint?

The fibula.

9

What are the 3 articulations at the knee joint?

-2 femorotibial (medial & lateral)
-1 femoropatellar

10

What are the 2 expansions at the distal end of the femur?

Medial and lateral femoral condyles.

11

What are the 2 slight expansions at the proximal end of the tibia?

Medial and lateral tibial condyles.

12

What are the flattened surfaces of the proximal tibia called (above the condyles)?

Medial and lateral tibial plateaus.

13

What movements are possible at the knee joint?

-Extension/flexion
-Lateral & medial rotation (leg)

14

What happens to knee flexion when the hip is extended?

Lose some knee flexion due to loss of tension of the hamstrings.

15

What must occur for rotation of the knee joint? (2)

-Flexion of the knee
-Collateral ligaments relaxed

16

What is locking of the knee?

As the knee approaches full extension, the femur undergoes a few degrees of MEDIAL rotation on the tibia.

17

Why does locking occur?

Produces a very stable position >> thigh muscles can relax.

18

What must occur before the knee can be flexed?

Unlocking.

19

Which muscle 'unlocks' the knee, and how?

Popliteus muscle.
-laterally rotates the femur

20

What is the area at the back of the knee called?

The popliteal fossa.

21

Which artery does the popliteal fossa contain?

Popliteal artery.

22

When is the knee joint most stable?

During extension.
-most congruence

23

Why is the knee joint most stable during extension?

More congruence.
-more contact between distal femur and proximal tibia

24

When do a lot of knee injuries tend to occur?

During knee flexion.

25

What deepens the tibial plateaus?

Menisci.

26

What are the menisci?

2 C-shaped rings of fibrocartilage (lat&med) that deepen the tibial plateau.

27

Where are the menisci thickest?

Externally.

28

What are the function of the menisci? (4)

-Increase joint congruency
-Distribute weight evenly
-Shock absorption
-Assist in 'locking'

29

What do the external edges of the menisci attach to?

Fibrous capsule of the joint.

30

What is the medial menisci attached to?

Tibial collateral ligament.