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Flashcards in Workbook - Living anatomy Deck (57)
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1

What is the round shape of the gluteal region mainly due to?

Gluteus maximus.

2

What marks the inferior border of the gluteus maximus?

The gluteal fold.
-transition between gluteal region and posterior thigh

3

Which muscles contribute to the quadriceps? (4)

-Rectus femoris
-Vastus lateralis
-Vastus intermedius
-Vastus medialis

4

Which of the quadriceps muscles in not visible on the anterior surface of the thigh?

Vastus intermedius.
-beneath rectus femoris

5

What is the most prominent bony feature of the pelvic girdle?

The iliac crest.
-from ASIS to PSIS

6

Why is the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS) often difficult to palpate?

Normally covered by fat.

7

What are the skin dimples lateral to the midline on the back caused by?

Attachment of overlying fascia to the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS).
-can be used to locate it

8

What does the line joining the dimples on the lower back pass through? (3)

-S2 spinous processes
-Middle of the sacroiliac joints
-Bifurcation of the iliac arteries

9

What structure within the vertebral canal terminates at S1-2?

The dural sac.

10

What is the line joining the highest points of the iliac crests called, and what does it pass through?

Supracristal plane.
-intervertebral disc between L4/L5

11

What clinical procedure is the supracristal plane used as a landmark for?

Epidural.

12

Where is the tibia particularly prominent?

On the anteromedial surface.
-covered only skin and thin layer of fat

13

Which bone in the leg is palpable along its whole course?

The tibia.

14

Where is the fibula palpable?

Proximal and distal ends.
-head and lateral malleolus

15

What is the femoral artery often used for clinically?

-Access to arterial system (radiologists)
-Insert catheters/stents
-Angiograms

16

What are the boundaries of the femoral triangle?

SUPERIOR - inguinal ligament
LATERAL - sartorius (med border)
MEDIAL - adductor longus (med border)
FLOOR - pectineus, iliopsoas, adductor longus
ROOF - fascia lata

17

What are the contents of the femoral triangle?

Med >> lat:
-Femoral canal (lymphatics)
-Femoral vein
-Femoral artery
-Femoral nerve

18

What are contained within the femoral sheath?

Femoral artery, vein and lymphatics.

19

What are the boundaries of the popliteal fossa?

SUPEROMEDIAL - semimembranosus & semitendinosus
SUPEROLATERAL - biceps femoris
INFERIOR - lat/med heads of gastrocnemius

20

What are the contents of the popliteal fossa?

Med >> lat:
-Popliteal artery
-Popliteal vein
-Tibial nerve (>>down midline)
-Common fibular nerve (>> laterally)

21

Which nerve passes around the head of the fibula?

Common fibular nerve.

22

What are the important pulse points in the lower limb? (4)

-Femoral pulse
-Popliteal pulse
-Posterior tibial pulse
-Dorsalis pedis pulse

23

Where is the femoral pulse palpated?

Halfway between the ASIS and the pubic tubercle.
-just inferior to inguinal ligament

24

Where is the popliteal pulse palpated, and why is it difficult?

In the popliteal fossa.
-difficult as it's the deepest structure
-knee should be flexed with foot resting to relax hamstrings

25

Where is the posterior tibial pulse palpated?

Posterior to the medial malleolus.

26

Where is the dorsalis pedis pulse palpated?

Lateral to the tendon of extensor hallucis longus.

27

Why might it be necessary to palpate all the pulse points of the lower limb?

Check for differences.
-e.g. due to thrombosis/embolism

28

Where do the superficial veins of the lower limb originate?

Dorsal venous arch of the foot.

29

What are the superficial veins of the lower limb? (2)

-Great saphenous vein
-Small saphenous vein

30

What does the great saphenous vein originate from?

Dorsal venous arch and dorsal vein of great toe.