The knee, leg, ankle, and foot Flashcards Preview

Y2 LCRS2- Limbs Anatomy - Laz > The knee, leg, ankle, and foot > Flashcards

Flashcards in The knee, leg, ankle, and foot Deck (76)
Loading flashcards...
1

What is the small protrusion in the middle of the tibial plateau called?

Intercondylar eminence

2

What inserts into the tibial tuberosity?

Patellar tendon (through which the quadriceps act)

3

Which bone in the leg does not bear any weight?

Fibula

4

What protrusions in the ankle do the distal ends of the tibia and fibula form?

Tibia – medial malleolus
Fibula – lateral malleolus

5

What is the name of the ridge running obliquely down the posterior surface of the tibia?

Soleal line

6

Name all the tarsal bones.

Tallus
Calcaneus
Cuboid
Navicular
Cuneiforms (1, 2 and 3)

7

What are the two main joints in the foot and where do they lie?

Transverse tarsal joint (between calcaneus + tallus and navicular + cuboid)
Tarsometatarsal joint (between the most distal tarsal bones and the metatarsals)

8

How many phalanges does each of the digits have?

Big toe – 2
All other toes - 3

9

Where are sesamoid bones found in the foot and which tendon do these bones lie in?

On the dorsal surface of the foot, beneath the metatarsophalangeal joint of the big toe
It lies in the tendon of flexor hallucis brevis

10

Which tarsal bones have tuberosities?

Navicular and Cuboid

11

What are the three arches that are formed when the bones of the foot fit together?

Medial and lateral longitudinal arches
Transverse arches

12

Which bones make up the forefoot, midfoot and hindfoot?

Hindfoot – calcaneus and tallus
Midfoot – cuboid, navicular and cuneiforms
Forefoot – metatarsals and phalanges

13

Which muscles of the anterior compartment of the thigh do not act across the knee?

Iliopsoas and Pectineus

14

Which muscle in the medial compartment of the thigh acts across the knee?

Gracilis

15

Describe the arrangement of the three hamstrings.

Biceps femoris lies more laterally (its short head comes from the lateral lip of the linea aspera) and inserts into fibula
Semitendinosus and semimembranosus are more medial and insert into the tibia

16

What movement is the anterior compartment of the leg responsible for?

Dorsiflexion of the ankle

17

Which nerve supplies this compartment?

Deep peroneal nerve

18

Which artery supplies this compartment?

Anterior tibial artery

19

Which muscles are found in this compartment?

Tibialis Anterior
Extensor Digitorum Longus
Extensor Hallucis Longus

20

Describe the structure and attachment of tibialis anterior.

Lateral surface of the head of the tibia and travels medially
Goes in front of the medial malleolus
Attaches to the medial cuneiform + 1st metatarsal

21

What are the names of the two extensor retinacula in the foot?

Superior extensor retinaculum
Inferior extensor retinaculum

22

Which muscles are in the lateral compartment of the leg?

Peroneus longus
Peroneus brevis

23

What movement is the lateral compartment responsible for?

Eversion of the foot

24

Which nerve supplies this compartment?

Superficial peroneal nerve

25

Which artery supplies this compartment?

Peroneal artery

26

Describe the structure and attachments of the two muscles in this compartment.

Both the muscles attach to the shaft of the fibula and run along the lateral side of the leg, behind the lateral malleolus and then:
Brevis – attaches to the base of the 5th metatarsal
Longus – attaches to 1st metatarsal and medial cuneiform (same as tibialis anterior but on the plantar surface)

27

Which muscles are in the posterior compartment of the leg?

Superficial:
Gastrocnemius
Soleus
Plantaris

Deep:
Flexor digitorum longus
Flexor hallucis longus
Tibialis posterior
Popliteus

28

What movement is the posterior compartment of the leg responsible for?

Plantarflexion of the ankle
Flexion of the digits

29

Which nerve innervates the muscles in the posterior compartment?

Tibial nerve

30

Which artery supplies the posterior compartment?

Posterior tibial artery