Nerves and vessels of the lower limb Flashcards Preview

Y2 LCRS2- Limbs Anatomy - Laz > Nerves and vessels of the lower limb > Flashcards

Flashcards in Nerves and vessels of the lower limb Deck (26)
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1

How many sacral nerves are there?

5

2

How many coccygeal nerves are there?

1

3

Which spinal nerves supply each of the following:
Neck
Upper Limb
Trunk
Lower Limb
Perineum

Neck: C1-C4
Upper Limb: C5-T1
Trunk: T2-L1
Lower Limb: L2-S3
Perineum: S2-C1

4

Which muscles does the superior gluteal nerve innervate?

Gluteus medius
Gluteus minimus
Tensor fasciae latae

5

The femoral nerve innervates all the muscles in the anterior compartment of the thigh. Which extra spinal root contributes to the innervation of iliopsoas?

L1

6

Which nerve roots are responsible for:
Inversion
Eversion
Toe Extension
Toe Flexion

Inversion: L4
Eversion: L5S1
Toe Extension: L5S1
Toe Flexion: S12

7

What nerve supplies sensory innervation to most of the posterior of the thigh?

Posterior cutaneous nerve of the thigh

8

Which two spinal nerve roots are responsible for sensory innervation of most of the posterior side of the lower limb?

S1 and S2

9

What are autonomous sensory zones?

Regions where you can be confident of the spinal root affected if there is any abnormal sensation in those regions

10

Which part of the lower limb does the obturator nerve supply sensory innervation to?

Inner part of the thigh

11

Which part of the leg does the saphenous nerve provide sensory innervation to?

Medial part of the leg

12

Which nerve provides sensory innervation to most of the dorsum of the foot?

Superficial peroneal nerve

13

Where can the common peroneal nerve be damaged easily?

At the neck of the fibula

14

What are the consequences of damage to the common peroneal nerve?

Foot drop
Loss of sensation to the dorsum of the foot at least
No change in reflexes or autonomic function

15

Describe the position of the posterior tibial artery relative to the medial malleolus.

It is posterior to the medial malleolus

16

Where can the dorsalis pedis pulse be felt?

Just lateral to the extensor hallucis longus tendon

17

Where can the posterior tibial artery pulse be felt?

Just posterior to the medial malleolus

18

What is cut-down and when it is performed?

It is an emergency procedure to gain access to the veins of a patient in shock

19

Where is the incision made in cut-down?

2 cm lateral and proximal to the medial malleolus

20

What is intermittent claudication?

Muscle pain induced by exercise and relieved by rest, that is caused by inadequate blood supply to the affected muscles (associated with arterial disease)

21

What is compartment syndrome?

Ischaemia caused by trauma-induced increased in pressure in a confined limb compartment

22

What is the normal pressure in muscle compartments?

25 mm Hg

23

What pressure is required to collapse vessels?

50-60 mm Hg

24

What are the causes of acute and chronic compartment syndrome?

Acute – trauma-associated
Chronic – exercise-induced

25

What is the treatment of acute compartment syndrome?

Emergency fasciotomy

26

How do varicose veins form?

Valve dysfunction in the superficial, deep and perforating veins
Saphenofemoral junction valve is the most important
NOTE: can cause lipodermatosclerosis and ulcers