The Liver and Gallbladder Flashcards Preview

METABOLISM > The Liver and Gallbladder > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Liver and Gallbladder Deck (22):

Where does the majority of the blood supply tot he liver come from?

hepatic portal vein


What can the liver do to fructose and galactose?

convert to glucose


What is transamination?

transfer of an amino group to a keto acid


What is deamination?

removal of an amine group (often to form something such as alpha ketoglutarate which can enter the TCA cycle) and ammonium ion NH4+


What happens to the ammonia produced by gut bacteria or deamination?

converted to ammonium (NH4+) and then converted to urea in the liver


Where are most of the plasma proteins produced?



Name the main components of blood plasma

albumin, globulins, clotting factors and water


What does lipid metabolism involve?

breakdown of triacylglycerol to fatty acids and glycerol


What happens to the fatty acids produced by TG breakdown?

fatty acids are converted to acetyl CoA which enters respiration (TCA cycle)


What happens to the glycerol produced by TG breakdown?

glycerol is converted to glucose in gluconeogenesis


What is the effect of insulin on the liver?

Signals the 'fed-state' and causes the promotion of glycogenesis and suppresses gluconeogenesis and accelerates glycolysis by encouraging fatty acid synthesis


Outline the three phases of drug metabolism

Phase 1 - modification such as hydroxylation by cytochrome p450
Phase 2 - conjugation
Phase 3 - further modification or excretion


What are the 4 main things that the liver can store?

Glycogen, vitamins (A, D and B12), cholesterol and iron


Why is cholesterol important in our diet?

forms cell membranes, steroid hormones, skin and bile salts


How is iron stored in the liver?

Stores apoferritin as ferritin (reversible) and as haemosiderin (insoluble)


Describe the components of the biliary tree

The gall bladder is situated posteriorly to the liver and the liver has a hepatic duct, and the gallbladder has a cystic duct which combine to form the common bile duct. which the travels over the pancreas where it then joins the duodenum at the sphincter of oddi


Where is bile modified after secretion?

in the hepatocytes by cholangiocytes where bicarbonate is added


What stimulates gall bladder contraction to release bile?

CCK detects fatty acids in the lumen of the duodenum and causes gall bladder contraction and relaxation of sphincter of oddi


Describe the composition of bile

90% water but has bile salts, bilirubin, cholesterol, fatty acids, common ions and bicarbonate ions


Describe the origin, metabolism and excretion of bilirubin

Red blood cell breakdown in the spleen produces bilirubin which is then bound to albumin and transported in the blood and is conjugated to gluronate and egested in the faeces


What is jaundice?

yellowing of the skin and sclera due to an excess of bilirubin


What happens in liver failure?

hypoglycaemia, impaired clotting, reduced albumin, jaundice and hyperammonaemia