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Flashcards in The Peritoneum Deck (21):

What is meant by 'retroperitoneal'?

some organs lie behind the peritoneum and are less prone to trauma and less variable


What is meant by 'intraperitoneal'?

organs which remain surrounded by the peritoneal cavity which can move and therefore this aids variable gut distension but leaves the organs prone to trauma


What is a volvulus?

a loop of bowel twisted about a focal point along the mesentery which may result in a bowel obstruction and lead to mesenteric ischaemia


Name the retroperitoneal organs

oesophagus, rectum, anus, kidneys, adrenals, ureter, pancreas, duodenum, ascending/descending colon


Name the intraperitoneal organs

spleen, stomach, liver, gallbladder, jejunum and ileum, caecum and appendix and sigmoid colon


What is the parietal peritoneum?

the peritoneum that lines the abdominal cavity and covers some of the organs on the posterior abdominal wall; it is continuous with the visceral peritoneum


What is the visceral peritoneum?

a lining that covers the organs of the gut/abdomen


Which organs are in the foregut?

stomach, first part of duodenum, liver, pancreas and spleen


What is the blood supply to the foregut?

coeliac trunk


What is the blood supply to the midgut?

superior mesenteric artery


Which organs are in the midgut?

tail-end of duodenum, caecum, appendix and large intestine up to splenic flexure (transverse colon)


Which organs are in the hindgut?

splenic flexure, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum and upper anal canal


What is the blood supply to the hindgut?

inferior mesenteric artery


Describe the development of the foregut

Dorsal and ventral mesogastrium hold gut tube in place in first stages of embryology, gut tube proliferates and organs such as stomach, liver and pancreas develop and the growth of these in a confined space causes the mesogastrium to bend with the liver going to the left hand side and the stomach and pancreas going to the right, with the pancreas against the posterior wall


Describe the development of the midgut

forms a U-shaped intestinal loop which herniates into umbilical cord at approximately week 6, the midgut then rotates 90 degrees and then at week 10 when it comes back from the umbilical cord it rotates a further 180 degrees (total of 270 degree anticlockwise rotation) and the cranial limb goes on to form the small intestine whereas the caudal limb goes on to form the ascending limb of the large intestine


What is mean by omphalocele?

congenital abnormality whereby the abdominal viscera herniate into the base of the umbilicus


Where is the falciform ligament found and what is its purpose?

comes from the anterior abdominal wall to the liver and contains the ligament teres (remains of umbilical cord)


Where is the lesser omentum found and what does it contain?

this comes from the inferior liver to the less curvature of the stomach, and structures in the free border of the lesser omentum include epiploic foramen, hepatic artery proper, hepatic portal vein and bile duct


Where is the greater omentum found and what does it contain?

goes from the greater curvature of the stomach to the transverse


Where is the transverse mesocolon located?

goes from the transverse colon to the posterior body wall


Where is the mesentery found and what is its purpose?

this goes from the small intestine to the posterior body wall and anchors the small intestine whilst providing a pathway for blood supply (superior mesenteric)