Flashcards in The Making Of The Anglo-irish Settlement Deck (15):
Why did Irish Nationalist support for UK war effort begin to evaporate?
IReland future determined by impact of WW1 than by any other factor - declaration of war on Germany in Aug 1914 supported by Irish Nationalist Party and Ulster Unionists.
Redmond offered use the Nationalist controlled Irish Volunteers to help defend shores of Ireland - in return, both sides hoped to secure positive response by UK government in support of Irish claims.
Redmond felt it was triumph for Nationalists when Asquith placed 1914 HR Act on statute book - provisions suspended until end of war
In Ireland - early period of war was massive recruiting of forces in both north and south - 1916 150,000 Irishmen in active service. Increased prosperity in Ireland due to demand for foodstuff and money sent home.
But Nationalists annoyed by insenstitivty of UK Government by formation of division of UK army for UVF but not Irish Volunteers and appointment of Carson and other leadign Unionists to the coalition ministry.
Redmonds old policy of alliance with Liberals got him nowehre and purpose of IPP became difficult to discern.
Why did the Easter Rebellion of 1916 fail?
Explore the planning, groups involved, the course of the rebellion, end of rebellion?
From start of revolutionary IRish Nationalists - members of Fenians had opposed war and policies of IPP did their best to prevent recruitment and support UK war effort in Ireland. In sept 1914 - followed speech by Redmond where intimated Irish Volunteers might be allowed to serve overseas, Volunteer movement split.
Some 180,000 men remained loyal to Redmond and known as National Volunteers - small anti war group of 11,000 men under MacNeill - set themselves up as separate organisation called Irish Volunteers - MacNeill professor of medival Irish histroy and passionately committed to free and independent Ireland. Main aim was to gain power in Ireland with support of Irish people and proclaim indepdent Irish republic.
Small group of his MacNeills fellow commanders and other revolutionaries prepared to go ahead with armed rebellion despite the odds - early in 1916, began planning uprising. Tom Clarke, Sean MacDermott and Patrick Pearse - outstanding personality in East Rebellion and James Connolly. Connolly leader of tiny Irish Citizen Army had helped form to defend the trasnport workers in Dublin strike 1913. Revolutionaries hoped to obtain arms from Germany, and Casement went to German support for Irish revolution. Plan was begin uprising in Dublin through Volunteers under guise of ordinary field manoeuvres and at time when city was deserted and authorities off guard
Easter monday 1916, small detachment of Irish Volunteers and members of Irish Citizens Army marched into central DUblin - without shot dfired and seized control of Post Office. Made their HQ. Perase read out famous proclamation annoucning birth of Irish Republic. By nightmall most of key buildings were in hands of the rebels. Serious military enterprise the East Rebellion was doomed from start
Rebellion mostly confined to Dublin, most citizens bemused or downright hostile - many felt rebels were traitors, stabbing UK in the back.
Success of rebellion depending participation of provincial units of Volunteers which didnt take place MacNeill got wind of Perarses plan andu sed authority as CHief of Staff to ban military activity
Revels received no outside help - German ship carrying arms intercepted by Royal Navy who landed on coast - Casement
Rebels outnumbered by soldiers and armed police
It is true the UK authorities who never taken earlier activities of Irish Volunteers seriouslym, caught unaware by outbreak of rebellion Dublin. When reinforcements and artillery brought int o action following day, position were hopeless. UK shelling set Post Office abalze and rebel leaders force to flee and join comrades in other parts of city. Revels hunted down and week it was over - Pearse surrendered unconditionally to UK authorities - 450 rebels and civilians killed
Why did the UK government punish those involved in the way that they did?
Easter Rebellion in no sense a national rising - only 1600 men/women participated on rebel side and most supporters of one section of Irish Volunteers - rebellion was made by a minority of a minority. Condemned by Catholic Church and denounced by Redmond and the moderate nationalists. Public opinion hostile and within few weeks Irish attitudes towards revellion began to change due to new policies by UK.
Asquith handed over problem of dealing with aftermath with of rebellion to army - Martial Law been proclaimed in Dublin and then Ireland beginning of Easter Week. General Mazwell, applied draconian policy of wholesale arrests and imprisonments or internments as well as executions to destroy revolutionary nationalism
About 3000 Irish men/women arrested, 160 suffered terms of imprisonment and most of remainder in internment, 90 prisoners tired and sentenced to death, 15 condemned, remaining 75 including de Valera had death sentences commuted to imprisonment
How did the defeated rebellion help the cause of Irish nationalism?
Harshness od measures and callous way in some of executions carried out together with reports ill treatment of prisoners and intimidation of civilians - aroused by horror and resentment amongst all classes in southern Ireland
Rebels given moral credence, Irish Nationalists able to ignore the fact that in some ways Rising had been fiasco - anti war and anti uk sentiments hardened as John Dillon pointed out in speech
Asquith concluded new effort made to secure Irish settlement immediately and put Lloyd George in charge. Proposed to Redmond and Carson a Home Rule Solution based on exclusion was temporary, Carson thought exclusion would be permanent. Lloyd George collapsed since key Unionists in Coalition against immediate grant of Home Rule.
Redmond - failure of negotiations personal disaster. Apparent willingness to accept partition of Irleand led to denunciation by important sections of Irish opinion, personal influence and that of his party decline more rapidly. It was Sinn Fein now came to occupy place formerly held by Redmonds parliamentary party as dominant force in Irish nationalism
What impact did the Easter Rising have on the fortunes of Sinn Fein?
SInn Fein founded by Arthur Griffin in 1907 - militant but non violent Irish nationalist organisation. Had little influence before war and anti war stance in 1914 in minority view
Cult of men of 1916 as heroes and martyrs which developed from moment of their execution and growth of historical myth - cultivted by both their friends and enemies - Easter rebellion essentially as Sinn Fein uprising increased the prestige and influence of Griffith organisation at expense of IPP.
Sinn Fein popularity increased even more as result of policies pursued by UK government and army after 1916 - continuation of martial law and further imprisonments, creation of fresh martyrs owing to deaths of few prisoners on hunger strikes, spread of revolutionary ideas among Irishmen brought together in prisons, apparent acceptance of Unionists veto over immediate HR by Asquith and Lloyd George
By end of Sinn Fein, in effect remodelled itself to conform with current image and revolutionary party committed to establishment of Irish Republic who birth been announced in Easter Monday Proclamation
How is the growth of Sinn Fein from rebel organisation to provisional government, best explained? Explore the conscription crisis, Irish COnvention, The Dail, 1918 election
In 1917, Sinn Fein won 2 by elections in usually safe Redmondite seats - April the US entered war on side of Allies and as a result of pressure from Wilson for Irish settlment, Lloyd George who replaced Asquith released Irish prisoners held in internment in UK
Lloyd George followed this up by summoning Irish Convention in July 1917 representing UK government and all parties to try once again to hammer out Irish settlment. Convention Scheme has been called masterstroke of improvisation by Lloyd George real intentions to keep Irishmen talking for as long as possible while he got on with task of winning the war. IN this he was successful in that Convention staggered until 1918. Irish settlement complete failure as Sinn Fein boycotted Convention and Ulster Unionists remained immovable as ever. Drove another nail in Coffin of IPP and Redmond pinned all last hopes for HR on Convention. Failure left him isolated and bereft of ideas and died in May 1918 - de Valera elected as Sinn Fein MP for East Clare - extneded and strengthend its organisation. - national conference de Valera elected president and in following months be head Irish Volunteers and combining in his person the leadership of political and military wings of Irish revolutionary movement.
The 1916 Conscrption Act had not been applied - UK government began to contemplate conscription. Pushed through parliament in May 1918 - All Ireland will rise against you John Dillon warned Lloyd George and thats what happened.
Dillon and party displaed opposition by walking out of Commons with Sinn Fein organised nationwide campaign agaisnt conscription.
Sinn Fein gained most from radicalisation of opinion in southern Ireland and agitation directed as much against the IPP as the UK government. Sinn Fein returned by overwhelming majority - authorities of Ireland responded by arresting Republican Leaders and clamping down on public meetings and the press - antagonised public opinion played in Sinn Fein hands and Ireland election was bitter/ugly affair.
Sinn Fein fought election on basis of principles enshrined in Easter Monday proclamation - support for independent, united Irish Republic and desturction of English pwoer over IReland. Problem of Ulster ignored - Ulster unionism was affirmed de Valera a thing of the mind only - Sinn Fein won 73 seats, IPP 6 and Unionists gained 26 seats
Sinn Fein now realistically claim to represent will of Irish majority. Election had it legitmicacy. MPs decided not to take up seats in Commons and implicitly refused to recognise authority of UK parliament over IReland. SUmmoned all MPs to Dublin on 1919 to constitute as Parliament of IRish Republic - only 27 arrived but rest in prison or involved elsewhere
Dail issued declaration of independence demanding ENglish withdrawal from Ireland and set up Provisional GOvernment under de Valera. Irish Provisional government able to make authority effective over much of IReland, established own courts of law and collected taxes. Backed up by IRA, as Irish Volunteers now called under Collins. By 1919 two authorities confronted one another in Ireland both demanding allegiance of Irish people - UK government rested mandate upon law and Irish PRovisional Government which claimed to represent will of people. In Jan 1919 two policemen killed by IRA in attempt to obtain explosives. For SInn Fein and IRA, marked opening shots in what they regarded as war for Irish indepdence
What were the intentions behind the government of Ireland Act 1920?
Coalition government annoucned in 1918 that one of its tasks was to explore pracitcal paths towards settlement of question of self gocernment - consensus of self government meant Cosnervative Party all apart from diehard MPs distance themselfves from Ulster Unionists and no longer prepared to oppose HR so long as it coupled with recognition of Ulsters rights and retention of Ireland
Ulster Unionists still in strong postiion. Number in government and Carson was influential figure outside - In Commons Conservative government dominant, Ulster Unionists won 22 formed only distinct IRish voice at Westminster since Sinn Fein refuse to take seats
Walter Long appointed chairman of government Irish Committe with task of producing new HR bill
What did the Act set out to do in Ireland?
Application of the principle of HR to both Ulster and southern Ireland - Government of Ireland Bill of 1920 proposed...
- establishment of 2 separate parliaments for North and South Ireland, elected Commons and Senate together with government responsible for each
- Election to 2 parliaments would be PR to safeguard rifhts of mrities
- powers of parliament similar to tthose contained in 1914 HR Act meant responsible for most internal affairs, Imperial government would still retain control.
- Supremacy of UK parliament remained in order to justify UK government intervention
Coalition accepted Ulster Unionist argument in favour of 6 counties - owing to everall Protstant majority in new state would be easier. Both parts represented at Westminster. COuncil of Ireland consisted of representatives from north and south to deal with common problem. Ulster Unionists not originally wanted self government eventually came to see advantages of proposals particularly in light of IRA violent campaign. Government of Ireland Act passed in Commons and terms in operation in May 1921 In NI elections, 40 Unionists won as result of Craig becoming PM and gegan task of taking over powers from UK authorities and providing peace/stability in new state
Did the Act fail because it gave too little, too late?
In south - Act virtually deal letter - 124 supporters of Sinn Fein returned unopposed out of 128 candidates. Sinn Feiners boycotted new parliament - it was Ulster Unionists now committed Home Rulers. In SOuthern Ireland, poklitical revolution been gathering pace since 1916 had left HR far behind as viable option.
The Anglo-Irish War 1919 - 1921 - How did the situation in Ireland escalate into war? Look at Government Policy
UK government introducing Government of Ireland Act, trying to cope with acitivites of IRA throughout Ireland. From beginning of 1919 - IRA under Collins launched campaign of murder and harassment directed against police and UK soldiers in effort to destroy English power in Ireland and force England to withdraw. For SInn Fein and IRA, campaign was legitimate one on behalf on IRish Republic and expected to be treated as soldiers of Irish national army
UK government difficult to respond - in their eyes IRA members of tiny murder gang in Lloyd George description - unrepresentative of to mass of people. Not and should not be treated as genuine combantants. But government no clear, positive policy to offer and little to understand of waht really happened on grounds of Ireland. Subject to pulls/pressures of military authorities on spot and public opinion in UK.
Lloyd George and Cabinet refused to recognise state of war in Ireland or alienation of Catholic masses from UK rule and their symappthy with SInn Fein demand for independence.
- Sinn Fein/IRA became outlawed organisations
- Dail declared illegal
- Special powers of arrest, imprisonment introduced
- attempts made to ban revolutionary publications
The RIC undermanned and demoralised by IRAs murder campaign directed against them - 176 policemen killed in 1920. Poliece strengthened by tough ex soldiers known as black and tans later the Auxis formed of ex army officers who acted a semi military force
Why did the Anglo-Irish conflict become so bloody and unrestrained?
- Bloody Sunday?
During 1920 IRA campaign became more widespread more calculated and brutal. Now direced agaisnt civilians who could be regarded as comfort to the enemy as well as policy and soldiers.
Black and Tans were condoned by UK army and government
1920 UK govrnment accepted engaged in real war in Ireland and applied regular troops on wider scale and introduced martial law in south.
Bloody SUnday - 1920 in Dublin, 11 English civilians shot dead by IRA in homes and hotels. Black and Tans invaded sports ground of Croke Park and indiscriminately at players and crowd leaving 12 dead and 60 wounded. In DEc much of Cork was burn as reprisal for killing of Auxis in 2 ambushed lorries
Why was there a growing realisation for the need for a truce?
Clear that militarily the Anglo Irish War wasnt winnable for either side. IRA incapable of defeating the UK army and getting short of men and materials as casualties among their members and civilians became heavier. Estimated 752 men and women killed and 866 wounded. UK government not prepared to use full powers in all out war agaisnt Catholic Ireland.
By end of 1920, Lloyd George was profoundly aware of growing unpopularity of Anglo Irish War in UK and anxious to find a way out - deep revulsion againstmethods by Black and Tans which expressed by Church leaders.
PM informed by military advisers that would require army of 100,000 men to subjugate Ireland and obvious opinion would never stand for an operation.
In Dec 1920, Lloyd George put peace feelers to de Valera in effort to bring truce but early moves failed. Determination to persist with peace efforts reinforced by implementation of Government of IReland Act in 1921 - blunt refusal of SInn Fein to do with southern ireland parliament sey up under Act sjowed determination for independence but raised question - how were 26 counties governed if HR ruled out? But partition cleared way for treaty of 1921 - didnt have to deal with Ulster.
De Valera and COllins moved up military facts - loss of men and weapons and exhuastion produced by war. Republican leaders came to accept Lloyd George geuinely seeking political settlemtn and prepared to moderate original conditions. PM thinking in terms of Dominion Status as basis of Settlement - both sides agreed to truce on 11 July 1921
Why was the treaty accepted by Sinn Fein?
Meeting between Lloyd George and de Valera as well as James Craig which formed long period of complicated negotiations. Basis of proposals for political settlements was offer of Dominion status. Cosiderable advance on HR thought less than complete independence. Full control of domestic affairs, membership of EMpire, allegiance to Crown
PM insisted on naval facilities in Ireland and recognition of state of NI
UK government original proposals rejected bin Dail for whom oath of allegiance and membership too much. De Valera prepared to accept connection with UK. De Valera send delegation to London on 11 Oct 1921 to negotiate with UK representatives to ascertain hgow association of IReland may best be reconciled with Irish national aspirations
5 man Irish delegation assembled in London led by Griffith and Collins - De Valera preferred to stay in Dublin. Produced tension between Irish leaders in Dublin and colleagues in London - situation worsened by confusion overs tatus of IRish delegates.
Could sign binding treaty with UK government on own authority or De Valera insisted any draft treaty arrived be submitted first to government back home. Misunderstandings gave considerable advantage to uK team.
3 main queations for discussion
1) UK security - settled easily agreeing UK should have 3 naval bases in Ireland
2) Ulster - none of Irish in London or Dublin wanted partition but none prepared to challenge existence. PRoposed treaty was to apply to whole of IReland, NI had right to opt out. Lloyd George persuaded IRish delegates to accept idea of Boundary Commisssion - be so critical of Ulsters boudnaries that NI state would collapse. PM agreed to bring NI into line over proposal and no way James Craig could be coerced into agreeing to cooperate with scheme and alter the boundary got nowhere
3) Powers of new Irish state - old problem of Irelands relationship to Crown and Empire. Lloyd George got Irish delegates to accpet cosmetic formula over Crown. SOuthern IReland have DOminion Status rather than indepedence but oath of allegiance watered down making it less offensive.
On afternoon of 5 Dec, PM laid down threat, unless SInn Fein accepted treaty then war. Griffith, Collons reluctantly agreed to sign treaty in 1921 - Collins signing own death warrant.
What were the immediate consequences of the treaty for Ireland?
Look at the constitution for the Irish Free State
Treaty was popular with public in UK, Conservatives ensured it passed
Ireland reception was different, brought not unity but conflict. Irish Cabinet divided over treaty should be accepted or rejected. COllins believed no better terms and no alternative but accept. De Valera opposed to treaty since oath of loyalty and resigned as president and succeeded by Griffith. Dail supported treaty.
Terms carried out immediately - Provisional government appointed under Collins and power handed over by Viceroy. British Army began withdrawing from Ireland and handed over barracks to IRA. 1922 election held in Ireland and gave Collins convincing majority. Anti treaty faction led by de Valera refused to accept verdict and civil war more destructive and brutal followed. When violence spread to NI, conservative regret supporting scheme and Lloyd George fall in 1922. Rebels made peace in 1923 with new regime
By end of 1922 - Irish government headed by Cosgrove as Griffith died - felt strong enough to promulgate a formal Constitution for the IRish Free State. Approved by Dail and accpeted by UK government. Government of NI exercised treaty rifht to opt out of Irish Free Dtate - partition triumphed by 1923, two states existed side by side.