Flashcards in Daniel O'Connell, The Liberator Deck (13):
What special circumstances enabled O'Connell to bring about emancipation in 1829?
In England still a popular prejudice against Roman Catholics for political and religious reasons. Prince Regent maintained opposition to emancipation during his years as regency so 1820s bills intrdouced in Commons by supporters of emancipation were rejected. IN Ireland Catholic made little headway. Leader of campaign were unwilling to seek active support and cautious and conciliatory in dealings with authorities. Even willing to support compromise Emancipation Bill which granted politial and civil rights to Catholics including a veto. Which allow British government right to ecclesiastrical appointments to Catholic CHurch in UK in order to ensure only loyal clerics appointed. O'Connell rejected veto believing vital to maintain freedom of Catholic Church from itnerference by UK government. 1821 a Catholic Emancipation Bill obtained majority in Commons but rejected by Lords.
Who were the Catholic Association? How great an impact did the Association have? What were their aims, methods, supporters
Association fomed by O'Connell and supporters in 1823 as constitutional organisation for Catholic civil and political rights. Only expanded in 1824, O'Connell introduced catholic rent of one penny a month for supporters instead of high subscription proposed. So Association become truly national organsiation with strong roots among peasantry and turned old ineffective pressure group into what has been called crusade of irresistible mass movement.
Aims: main of Association was emancipation. It also attempted to embrace with issues such as electroal reform, reform Church of Ireland, tenant rights, economic development to advance the interests whole Catholic community. Membership not confined to Catholics, O Connell aim at making Irish Church integral part of whole movement since the role of the parish priests was of crucial importance in spreading message and helping to collect Catholic rent. Catholic rent was to become mainstay of the work of the Association as a whole. Collection enormously successful and used as gesture towards the church and used for educational and other communal purposes but the bulk usd to finance Associations work as a national organisation of protest and agitation
Methods: Association run from Dublin by committee of O COnnell and friends and supporters who directed encouraged activities at regional/local levels. Organisation of great open air public meetings which often addressed by O Connell. Proved to be oustanding public speaker, background and work as lawyer meant he knew his audiences, magnificent voice and coversational style of oratory enabled him to build up marvellous rapport with Catholic masses. For the peasantry, O Connell seemed incarnation of their hopes and ambitions not only in material but in religious sense. Became known as the Deliverer. Peasant traditions of secretsocieties and local agitation helped to reinforce work of Association at grassroot levels. As public orator he spoke with 2 voices, on one hand with fellow countrymen, demanded justice for Ireland but addressing the UK government for justice which meant emancipation and redress Catholic grievances to obtain peaceful means. Used policy of brinkmanship, seeking advantage by creating impression one is willing and able to push dangerous situation to limit was successgul. Used press and publi psoters to build up support.
Supporters: main area of support proved to be in Munster in south west Ireland and later in south east. In the north, O Connell seen by powerful protestant community as Roman Catholic demagogue and proved to be largely barren territory. 3 Main Catholic groups provided organisational support for Association - urban middle classes like lawyers hoped to gain most, economically/professionally from emancipation. The Rural middle classes links with peasantry and local politics and the parish priests were most important emissaries at local level.
The rapid progress of the association and O COnnell often bellicose langugage at public meeting alarmed the authorities and was arrested in 1824 on charges of incitement to rebellion but it failed. 1825 government did suppress Association but soon reorgansied by O Connell and another Emanicaption Bill passed through Commonns but was rejected by the Lords
Discuss the significance of the 1826 election
Association decided to intervene in election directly and deliberately in Irish elections. Called upon voters in selected counties to support pro Emancipation candidates whether they were Whigs or Tories. Catholic 40 shilling freeholders - mainstay of county electorate and nromally deferential group urged to defy Protestant landlords. Catholics boter by association, with co-operation of local priests achieved considerable success: 4 pro Emancipation candidates were returned, an ally of O'Connell beet landowners who controlled seat for 4 decades. Catholic voters in counties had backing of powerful national organisation that enabled them to defy their landlords. O COnnell now key figure in Irish politics, Tory PM Lord Liverpool resigned prcipitating crisis that profoundly affected the situation in Ireland
What were the main causes of the Emancipation crisis 1828 - 29?
One one side of cabinet, opponents to emancipation like Peel and Duke of Wellington, supported rights and privileges of Established Church of England opposed by principle. On the other side were members like Canning who supported Emancipation for pragmatic reasons to bind Ireland to the union.
Canning became PM but outlook on Catholic question led Peel and Wellington to refuse to join ministry. Wellington became PM in Jan 1828 after Canning death that Peel resumed office as home secretary. Tory Party now almost in complete disarray after elecation of duke to premiership led to resignation of Canning supporters and in not fit state to deal with major crisis. Repeal of the Test and Corporations Act 1828 bat instigation of Whig leader John Russell was bound to make it difficult for Tory leaders to ignore Emancipation.A by election in obsecure parlimentary constiuency in Ireland that brought matters to a head
What was the signficance of the County Clare Election 1828?
Fitzgerald appointed President of Board of Trade and had to stand for re election in County Clare. Fitzgerald popular landlord and supporter of emancipation but O Connell decided to stand as a candidate. Since he was Roman Catholic, would be unable to take his seat in Commons by law but to oppose his right to enter would run risk of widespread public disorder and violence in Ireland.
With abcking of Association and local priests, Catholic voters prepared to defy landlords and O COnnell won an easy victory in July. This should bring Catholic question to crisis and conclusion. DUke of Wellington took threat of violence seriously and concluded practical grounds that emancipation must be conceded.
How signficant was the Roman Catholic Emancipation Act of 1829?
Bill passed through commons early 1929 as result of Whigs and Liberal Tories. Demoralised Lords didnt dare to defy Duke and passed it by 2 to 1 majority. King George IV sulkily acquiesced and bill became law in April 1829. Influence of protestant supporters essential for passing Act and helped by disunity of Tory party. Claimed victory by O Connell now known as the Liberator.
Granted virtually full civil/political rights to Catholics which meant now become MPs and occupy highest positions in state. In gesture of spite, franchise qualification was raised from 40 shilling freehold to £10 household suffrage and cut electorate to one sixth.
Fundamental change in Ireland after 1829 was slow and ragarded by Protestants as a Catholic victory so sectarianism increased. In UK, dramatic change in politics: break up of old Tory party to new Conservative party, triumph of the Whigs and allies at general election of 1830 and passage of Great Reform Act of 1832. New Irish party led by O Connell and O COnnell rpoed to be more than a parliamentary politician.
What was the case for reform in Ireland by O'Connell?
Many members of Catholic middle classes wanted to seem some of the fruits of emancipation in terms of jobs and opportunities. Number of leading bishops also supported policy of reform first. Actions of Catholic peasantry many who lost of the vote and felt frustrated by lack of any real change in their conditions demanded action. Refusal to pay tithes to ANglican Church led to tithe war in 1830s. There was more rural crime, forcible and unsuccessful attempts by authorities to collect tithe with use of police and soldiers, breakdown of law and order in parts. In 1832 there were 242 murders, 300 attempted murders and 560 cases of arson. For Whig, priority was restoration of law and order
Explain what the following reforms brought to Ireland and some of the failures of each reform
1) Great Reform Bill
2) Coercion Act
3) Reform of education
4) Irish Church Act
5) Litchfield House Compact
6) Any further reforms?
1) In 1830, O Connellites won 30 MPs. Vote wasnt restored for 40 shilling freeholders and Ireland only obtained 5 new MPs. But 1833 election emerged with 39 MPs.
2) Liberator not prepared to co-operate fully with Whigs. Gave authorities wide powers of arbitary arrest and imprisonment and control of public meetings - act succeed in diminishing amount of violent crime and stifiled repeal agitation and recieved support by Irish Catholic Bishops.
3) In 1832 Stanley introduced national schools bu failed to satisfy aim to overcoming religious sectarianism or attack basic illiteracy
4) Reform unrepresentative Church of Ireland by abolishing 10 sees including 2 archbishoprics and suggested that confiscated church funds obtained from this be used for secular purposes.
5) Peel appointed PM in 1835 and gained more than 100 seats. Peel pushed ahead with his own plans. Party reminaed minority in Commons despite remarkable recovery. LHC between Whigs radicals and Irish in Feb 1835 - government defeated in House of Commons and Peel resigned so Melbourne was PM again.
6) Catholics appointed to high offices in Irish judiciary and Castle, new national police established which Catholics encouraged to join and political powers of extremist Protestant ORange Order were curbed. Drummond insisted police/military no longer used automatically to defend claims of landlords or collect tithes. Act of 1838 introduced compromise solution by which tithe now fixed additional rent charge payable by landlord. John Russell tried to introduce into Ireland English reforms. New workhosue system based on 1834 Poor Law Act set up and 1840 Corporations Act attempted to apply. Which reformed ENglish urban government. System of poor relief proved inadequate, IRish Corporations Act based on £10 household suffrage rathen than wider ratepayer suffrage, had limited powers so control of police excluded. 1840 abolished 58 Irish corporations. New regime in Irish local government did offer opportunities for Catholics. O Connellites won 10 local councils and 1841 O connell elected Lord Mayor of Dublin, first Catholic to hold since reign of James II.
Why did the Whig-Irish Alliance end?
1840 marked end of alliance. Despite O Connell enthusiasm, Irish Catholics seemed to gain little of substance from decade of Whig reform. Ireland treated differently from ENgland and power of Ascendancy still remained unbroken; it was Whigs who gain most from alliance. O Connell was forced t ocompromise time and time again to keep government in power. Concentration on parliamentary politics cut him off from Irish roots. National Repeal Association formed, mass agitation in favour of repeal became virtually certain when result of Tory triumph at 1841, Peel became PM. Personal apathy between O Connell and Peel. For Peel, O Connell great blackguard while O Connell felt Peel was cold and callous
Why did O Connells attemptes to secure repeal fail whereas earlier his emancipation campaign had succeeded?
What support was there for repeal? Organisations/fiance of the campaign?
Repeal supported by: peasantry who seemed to offer reduction of landlord power and Catholic church. O COnnell also had less committed middle classes but did gain some support from small extreme nationalists Young Ireland.
OConnell wanted to repeal to reestablish the Irish parliament and improve conditions of Irish people.
Repeal campaign financed by repeal rent which similar to atholic rent and brought in ample funds. Enabled efficient, national, movement to be established. Organisation of monster meetings controlled by O COnnell on peaceful basis led to massive mobilisation of Irish catholics and overall around 3 to 4 million people attneded these meetings. O COnnell hinted at use of force but aimed to arouse and channel opinion through propaganda and large scale public agitation and force government to repeal Act of Union.
But Peel as PM commanded strong, united, confident Tory party with large majority in Commons so wasnt dependent on Irish members. O Connellites down to 19 MPs ater 1841 election due to decline of personal influence from tying down to Whigs. Irish electorate no longer formidable owing to disenfranchisement of 40 shilling freeholders. O COnnells support not as united as middle class catholics seen had own doubts about repeal. Young Irleand differed to Liberator over tactics and long term aims by contrast all shafes of protestant opinion were united in oppositino to repeal
In a speech in commons in May 1843 as PM spelling out implications of his support for Union. Army strengthened in IReland, government not to back down. Repeal campaign came to head in autum of 1843. Momentum of movement pushed O Connell into threatening postures wih hints of unrest and military action. Peel waited for right tactical moment to arrive and act suddenly and swiftly. Monster meeting planned by O Connell took place was banned by authorities. This marked end of repeal campaign. Followed by new period of Irish reform by Peel
How successful was Peels strategy for reform in Ireland?
1) Maynooth College
2) Colleges Bill
3) Limits to reforms?
Peel aimed to build up in Catholic Ireland, among middle classes a feeling of confidence in effectiveness and impartiality of government and law and reconcile community to benefits of Union. Peel coninued WHig policy of appointing suitable Catholics to official posts in Ireland, particularly in judiciary. In 1844 went further by submitted Cabinet a programme of Irish reform. Wanted to break combination of O COnnell and Catholic clergy. Proposed franchise bill based on £5 freeholder gained little support and dropped. Bill providing compensation to evict Irish tenants for improvements to holdings rejected by Lords.
1) Maynooth College established by parliament in 1795 as training college for priests and supported financially by annual parliamentary grant. By 1840s, college facing financial difficulties. 1845, Peeld ecided to support bill increasing state grant to college. Attitude represented change in his views was political, greater injection of state funds and improvements would encourage rise of more respectable class of parish clergy. Penury and backwardness of college argued. Peel Bill however led storm of protest throughout UK since seemed to provide state encouragement of Catholic Church. SPlit the COnservative Party. Became Law due to Irish and Whigs in both houses.
2) Peel establishment of non denominational uni colleges at Belfast, Cork, Galway thus providing wider/cheaper opportunities for higher education outside Anglican Trinity College DUblin. But aim of interdenominational teaching bedevilled by religious sectarianism since Catholic not prepared to support colleges whose teaching it had no control
3) Irish reforms displayed courage and resolution. BUt long term solution to problems were gopeless inadequate. Nothing done to alter status of Church of Ireland. Nothing done for economic improvement or land reform. Mistrust of UK government and opposition to Union remained strong among Catholics.
O'Connell: The Last Years - Was O COnnell out of touch in his last years? Split with Young Ireland? Famine?
O'Connell nearly 70 and Liberator career went in permanent decline after 1843. May 1844 arrested and imprisoned for inciting violence even though verdict against him quashed by Lords. Cause of repeal indeed worsened by O COnnell personal and ideological disputes with leaders of Young Ireland. They resented opportunism and commitment to parliamentary politics and alliances as well his authoritarianism. As doctrinate nationalists, Davis concerned with raising Irish consciousness asbasis for indepdent Irish republic.
Differed over religion. Davis, a protestant wanted religion out of repeal movement but out of loyalty to church and reward for support in repeal campaign, O COnnell felt duty bound to support bishops in opposition to new uni colleges by Peel. Final break between two came over O Connell rigid commitment to peaceful agitation. 1846, leaders of Young Ireland came out in favour of possible sue of force in support of repeal so either expelled or left Association
IReland now in a famine, Repeal Association was weak, remote, irrelevant. O COnnell attempt to revive alliance with Whigs after fall of Peel in June 1946 seemed one last futile gesture as it was Whig that was blamed for imcompetence of relief measures. Liberator spoke for last in Commons in Feb 1947 and moving appeal to parliament to act not only liberally but generously. He set off for Italy determined to spend last days in Rome but died in Genoa in 1847