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Flashcards in The Malarias Deck (38):
1

What phylum is malaria a part of?

Apicomplexa

2

What are the commonalities between the malarias?

All are apicomplexans, parasitic, heteroxenous (require 2 hosts).

3

How many hosts does malaria require?

Two- vertebrate for schizogony, invertebrate from sporogony and gametogony

4

Where does sporogony take place for Plasmodium?

In the mosquito

5

Where does schizogony take place for Plasmodium?

In the vertebrate

6

Where does gametogony take place for Plasmodium?

Starts in vertebrate, but fertilization is in the mosquito

7

What is the appearance of Plasmodium in the blood cell?

Signet ring

8

What are ways of preventing/controlling Plasmodium?

Insecticides, nets, destruction of larval development sites, drug treatment of individuals, prophylactic treatment

9

Where does the exoerythrocytic cycle occur in avian malaria?

Endothelial cells and hematopoietic cells

10

What is Haemoproteus spp. and what species does it affect?

Malaria of birds and reptiles, worldwide

11

Where does Haemoproteus form gamonts?

Red blood cells, only stage in circulation

12

What is Leukococytozoon?

Type of avian malaria, transmitted by black flies

13

What is the life cycle of Leukococytozoon spp?

Sporozoites go to the liver, in the tissue megaloschizonts, gamonts in RBCs and WBCs

14

What is the effect of Leukococytozoon in turkeys?

80% losses, young birds most susceptible

15

How can one diagnose Leucocytozoon?

History of blackflies, signs, symptoms and lesions, ID gamonts in blood film

16

How can one prevent Leucocytozoon spp.?

Treat with Clopirdol and prevent by controlling blackfly population

17

What are the characteristics of Piroplasms?

Apicomplexans, blood cell parasites, pigment not formed from host hemoglobin, ticks are usually definitive hosts

18

What does Babesia cause?

Teas cattle fever

19

What is the significance of Texas Cattle Fever?

No longer a problem in the US, problem in Latin American livestock, importation of the parasite is a major concern

20

What are the hosts of Babesia?

Hosts are all domesticated animals, vector is ixodid or hard ticks

21

What does Babesia look like?

Teardrop shaped, 2-5 microns, live in RBCs

22

Where does the life cycle of Babesia occur?

Entirely in the RBC, no exoerythrocytic schizogony

23

What is transovarial reproduction in Babesia?

Vertical transmission, one host ticks

24

What is the life cycle of Babesia in a tick?

TYPE IT HERE

25

What is stage to stage reproduction in Babesia?

Lateral transmission, 2 to 3 host ticks

26

What is the pathogenesis of Babesia?

Highly pathogeneic, mortality higher in adults, massive destruction of RBCs so anemia, edema, icterus,hypotension

27

What are the clinical signs of Babesia?

high fever, malaise, anorexia, anemia, edema, icterus, splenomegaly and hepatomegaly, diarrhea

28

What is the treatment for Babesia?

Imidocarb

29

What is Babesia microti?

Found in small rodents, transmitted by the deer tick, reported in humans but disease is self-limiting

30

What is the parasite that causes Canine Hepatozoonosis?

Hepatozoon americanum

31

What are the characteristics of Canine Hepatozoonosis?

New disease, dog ingests the tick host and the sporozoites are released, signs of chronic wasting

32

What is the host of Theileria spp?

Hosts are cattle, zebu, water buffalo. DH is the ixodid or hard tick.

33

Where do Theileria reside?

Occur in RBCs or lymphocytes

34

What is the life cycle of Theileria spp?

TYPE HERE

35

What disease does Theileria parva cause?

East Coast Fever, causes dyspnea, emaciation, weakness, tarry diarrhea and high mortality

36

Describe Cytauxzoon felis.

Relatively new disease of domestic cats, natural host is the bobcat, found in south central and southeastern US, rapid onset and often fatal.

37

How do you diagnose Cytauzoon felis?

Stained blood smear, usually postmortem finding

38

Smith and Kilborne, along with Curtis discovered the life of what in 1893?

Babesia bigmina