Flashcards in The Malarias Deck (38):
What phylum is malaria a part of?
What are the commonalities between the malarias?
All are apicomplexans, parasitic, heteroxenous (require 2 hosts).
How many hosts does malaria require?
Two- vertebrate for schizogony, invertebrate from sporogony and gametogony
Where does sporogony take place for Plasmodium?
In the mosquito
Where does schizogony take place for Plasmodium?
In the vertebrate
Where does gametogony take place for Plasmodium?
Starts in vertebrate, but fertilization is in the mosquito
What is the appearance of Plasmodium in the blood cell?
What are ways of preventing/controlling Plasmodium?
Insecticides, nets, destruction of larval development sites, drug treatment of individuals, prophylactic treatment
Where does the exoerythrocytic cycle occur in avian malaria?
Endothelial cells and hematopoietic cells
What is Haemoproteus spp. and what species does it affect?
Malaria of birds and reptiles, worldwide
Where does Haemoproteus form gamonts?
Red blood cells, only stage in circulation
What is Leukococytozoon?
Type of avian malaria, transmitted by black flies
What is the life cycle of Leukococytozoon spp?
Sporozoites go to the liver, in the tissue megaloschizonts, gamonts in RBCs and WBCs
What is the effect of Leukococytozoon in turkeys?
80% losses, young birds most susceptible
How can one diagnose Leucocytozoon?
History of blackflies, signs, symptoms and lesions, ID gamonts in blood film
How can one prevent Leucocytozoon spp.?
Treat with Clopirdol and prevent by controlling blackfly population
What are the characteristics of Piroplasms?
Apicomplexans, blood cell parasites, pigment not formed from host hemoglobin, ticks are usually definitive hosts
What does Babesia cause?
Teas cattle fever
What is the significance of Texas Cattle Fever?
No longer a problem in the US, problem in Latin American livestock, importation of the parasite is a major concern
What are the hosts of Babesia?
Hosts are all domesticated animals, vector is ixodid or hard ticks
What does Babesia look like?
Teardrop shaped, 2-5 microns, live in RBCs
Where does the life cycle of Babesia occur?
Entirely in the RBC, no exoerythrocytic schizogony
What is transovarial reproduction in Babesia?
Vertical transmission, one host ticks
What is the life cycle of Babesia in a tick?
TYPE IT HERE
What is stage to stage reproduction in Babesia?
Lateral transmission, 2 to 3 host ticks
What is the pathogenesis of Babesia?
Highly pathogeneic, mortality higher in adults, massive destruction of RBCs so anemia, edema, icterus,hypotension
What are the clinical signs of Babesia?
high fever, malaise, anorexia, anemia, edema, icterus, splenomegaly and hepatomegaly, diarrhea
What is the treatment for Babesia?
What is Babesia microti?
Found in small rodents, transmitted by the deer tick, reported in humans but disease is self-limiting
What is the parasite that causes Canine Hepatozoonosis?
What are the characteristics of Canine Hepatozoonosis?
New disease, dog ingests the tick host and the sporozoites are released, signs of chronic wasting
What is the host of Theileria spp?
Hosts are cattle, zebu, water buffalo. DH is the ixodid or hard tick.
Where do Theileria reside?
Occur in RBCs or lymphocytes
What is the life cycle of Theileria spp?
What disease does Theileria parva cause?
East Coast Fever, causes dyspnea, emaciation, weakness, tarry diarrhea and high mortality
Describe Cytauxzoon felis.
Relatively new disease of domestic cats, natural host is the bobcat, found in south central and southeastern US, rapid onset and often fatal.
How do you diagnose Cytauzoon felis?
Stained blood smear, usually postmortem finding