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Flashcards in The New World Deck (33):

List 3 examples of places explored in Charles' reign (there was much greater expansion)

- Mexico
- Peru
- civilisation in Yucatan


Where did Cortes lead an expedition in 1519? Who did he go with?

- to Vera Cruz in Mexico
- 600 men, 16 horses, 6 pieces of artillery


In 1521, Tenochtitlan was conquered. Where is this and what happened?

- capital of the Aztec empire
- they took Emperor Montezuma prisoner and overwhelmed Aztec forces


In 1532, who defeated the Incas and where?

- Pizarro
- defeated the Incas in the Andes of Peru
- 160 men


What three things ensured that Pizarro was able to defeat the Incas in the Andes of Peru?

Use of:
- horses
- steel swords
- guns


Who were the enemies of the Aztecs and Incas and how did this help the conquistadors?

- the Tlaxcalar tribe
- succession crisis in the Inca empire
- the enemies gave the conquistadors troops, geographical knowledge and knowledge of the inhabitants


What was the prime motivation of the conquistadors?

- the hope of easy riches in the New World


What shows that the indigenous people realised it was money that the conquistadors wanted?

- they believed they could pay them off
- a Manco-Incan warrier led a revolt against Pizarro and commented "even if the snow of the Andes turned to gold, still they would not be satisfied"`


What didn't the indigenous people realise about the conquistadors?

- that there was more of them
- they wanted to settle permanently


What did the chronicler of Cortes' expedition comment about the aims of the exploration?

"We came to serve God and his majesty... and to get rich"


What was an important additional motivator for the conquistadors?

- religion
- every expedition had one priest who was determined to convert the natives to the Christian faith


Why was it easier to establish effective royal government?

- there were no noble families to placate
- there were no representative assemblies


What was Charles' first problem to deal with and why?

- the power of the conquistadors as he didn't want them as powerful, virtually independent nobility


When the Council of Indies was established, who were used?

- letrados, many of whom had lived in the Indies for some period of time


What were the three purposes of the Council of the Indies?

- supreme court of appeal
- drew up all necessary laws


Who were appointed to govern Mexico and Peru?

- Spanish viceroys


What safeguards were used to ensure that a viceroy didn't become too powerful?

- the audiencia: it oversaw the implementation of the Crown's policies and acted as a court of law
- at the end of their term of office a viceroy would be subject to review


Though there were issues with communication between Spain and the Indies, how was the system overall?

- effective


What powers did Charles have in the New World?

- he could control Church appointments
- he could oversee Church activities without papal interference


How did Charles pursue his primary aim of converting the natives to Christianity?

- presence of large numbers of Franciscans, Dominicans and Jesuits


Although the Spanish crown, administrators and Crown probably all wished to see a just system introduced for the natives, who was the most influencial supporter of Indian rights?

- Las Casas


What title was given to Las Casas and what did he attack?

- "Protector of the Indians"
- attacked the system of encomiendas as unjust and tyrannical


What did Las Casas action lead to?

- 1542: New Laws
- forbade Indian slavery and granting new encomiendas
- colonists found guilty of mistreating Indians were ordered to lose their encomiendas


In spite of the efforts of Spanish administrators, many natives died. Over 50 years, 1518-1568, what was the difference in population of Indians?

- 1518: 25 million (approx)
- 1568: 3 million (approx)
- 22 million died


What were the factors that led to the death of so many natives?

- overwork
- diseases ('the Colombian exchange') eg. smallpox


The Indies provided a market for Castilian products, which products?

- cloth, oil, wine


Which new products did Spain receive?

- chocolate
- pineapple
- tomato
- rubber


What were some more indirect benefits of the New World other than the bullion?

- social mobility eg. Cortes became a marquis and gain land in Mexico
- new ideas and ways of thinking
- those who were made rich built new houses and invested in the arts


The conquistadors were often formers soldiers and sailors who had fought in Granada and Italy. Were they all minor nobles?

- no, some minor nobles eg. Cortes
- some illiterate labourer eg. Pizarro


Between 1524 and 1536, how many conversions were there in Mexico alone?

4 million


In 1545, what was discovered?

- silver mines at Potosi


What were the economic benefits of the discovery of the silver mines at Potosi in 1545?

- colonists paid taxes
- Crown gained the quinto real of the wealth
- able to take out foreign loans on the security of the gold and silver


What are the more indirect benefits of the discovery of the silver mines at Potosi in 1545?

- social mobility
- Cortes became a marquis and gained enormous territory in Mexico
- New World generated new ideas and thinking