Flashcards in Charles and Foreign Policy (2) Deck (17):
In 1536, what did Charles say to the Pope regarding the fighting against Islam?
He said he wished to wage "not war against Christians but against the infidel"
What was Charles' personal emblem and what words did it have on? What significance did this have?
- Pillars of Hercules
- bore the words 'Plus Oultre' (still further)
- suggested the Herculean task facing the king in fighting Islam
In 1532, why did Ferdinand have to be involved with Vienna? What was the result?
- it was besieged by the Turks
- no fighting, peace was made as the Turks withdrew
The Spanish people were really supportive of Charles' measures to deal with Islam in North Africa. Why couldn't he continue these measures until after 1529?
- he was involved in other commitments
- Barbarossa took the island fortress of Penon from Spain
- Charles' had the support of the naval force led by Doria to help him (meant he could move and supply troops from Spain to HRE much easier)
Why did Charles have to organise an expedition against Tunis in 1535?
- he had attempted a naval expedition to take Coron and Patras (1532-1533) but it hadn't weakened Barbarossa
What did the 1535 expedition against Tunis achieve?
- attacked and captured the fortress of La Goleta and the city of Tunis
- however, though most of the Turkish fleet was captured, Barbarossa escaped
After this major success, why couldn't this be followed up?
- Charles had other commitments in Northern Europe
List the further attempts to attack Islam
- first attempt to stop Barbarossa failed
- second attempt to stop pirate Dragut failed
- 1541: attack on Algiers came to tragic end when storm wrecked the fleet
Over the years 1551 - 1555, the Turks took other small places. Name a couple of places that Spain still held at the end of the reign
- La Goleta
When Charles was made HRE, what was very clear to him regarding religion?
- that the German princes wouldn't tolerate interference in their affairs
How did the spread of Lutheranism intensify difficulties?
- it split the Catholic and Lutheran princes and cities
At the 1547 Battle of Muhlberg, who was defeated and by whom?
- Lutheran forces by Charles
After what event did Charles feel unable to continue and what did he do?
- 1552: failure to retake Metz from the French
- fled to the Netherlands
Due to Charles feeling ill and disillusioned, what did he do?
- gave his imperial authority to his brother Ferdinand
Who negotiated the Treaty of Augsburg and when?
- Charles' brother Ferdinand in 1555
How did Gattinara motivate Philip to protect Catholicism?
- urged upon his master a God-given duty to establish a 'monarchia' of Christendom