Flashcards in The pathophysiology of congenital heart disease Deck (23):
What are the 3 general etiologies of CHD?
87% of the etiology of CHD is _____.
2. environmental (drugs, chemicals, viruses, maternal disease)
3. mutifactoral: combo of gen and enviro (myocarditis that progresses)
87% = multifactorial
What are the common genetic syndromes are assc with also having of CHD?
down syndrome (50%)
trisomy 18 (90%)
trisomy 13 (80%)
What are the common environmental factors for the development of CHD?
1. infections (Rubella in baby)
2. Diseases (PKU in baby, DM in mom)
3. drugs (thalidomide, dilantin, trimethadione, psychoprophics)
4. toxins (alcohol)
How does fetal circualtion determine cardiac development
dec flow to the right side --> small right sided structures
dec flow to left -->
At birth, how does the babys circualtion change? (normal) what would happen in pulmonary HTNN
systemic resistance increases
pulmonary resistance decreases
pulmonary vasular resistance=
1/2 of systemic after 24 hrs
may take 2-6 weeks to develop adult levels
dec Q to LV --> organ failure
closure of ductus arteriosis and ductus venous occurs in ___ (time)
closure of formamen ovale occurs in ____ (time)
weeks to months
ventricular septal defect: what does the echo show as the child gets older?
initially no hypertrophy
1-2 yrs: RVH
ventricular septal defect: how does pulmonary flow change as the child gets older?
2wk-2mo: increased pulmonary flow (because pulm resistance is less than systemic resistance)
1-2 years: decreased pulmonary flow
When will a child with VSD begin to appear cyanotic?
~1-2 years (related to pulmonary resistance??)
Physiologic/innocent murmurs are never...
associated with a thrill
Murmurs: In AV valves, regurgitation is heard during (systole/diastole) and stenosis is heard during (systole/diastole).
Murmurs: In semilunar valves, regurgitation is heard during (systole/diastole) and stenosis is heard during (systole/diastole).
Atrial septal defects have murmurs of relative stenosis of (which valves)?
(is this WTF all of her letters meant?)
Ventricle septal defects and AV canal defects have murmurs of relative stenosis of (which valve)?
Most common congenital heart defect? Then what?
ventr septal defect
transposition of great arteries
Cyanosis occurs when there is a desaturated concentration of hgb greater than...
Cyanosis may be caused by
some heart defects
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome presents with what abn on echo? Is this a cyanotic or non-cyanotic defect?
small LV with very low volume
What are the cyanotic congenital heart defects?
I Truncus Arteriosus
II Transposition of Gr Arteries
III Tricuspid Atresia
IV Tetralogy of Fallot
V Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return
Mnemonic: 1 trunk, 2 arteries; tri = 3; tetr = 4; 5 = 5 words
In Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return, the blood mixes in the:
An unrestrictive VSD in a newborn infant is likely to be associated with little or no:
(it takes ~2 mo for the pulm resistance to fall)