Hemodynamic Disorder Lecture 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Hemodynamic Disorder Lecture 3 Deck (34):
1

Why is infective endocarditis so important?

it is 100% fatal if unDx and unTx and 20% fatal id Dx and Tx appropriately

2

Right sided infective endocarditis embolus always goes to ____

lung

3

myocardial abscess

forms when infective embolus goes to CA

4

What is a normal QT interval corrected for HE, QTc?

<440 miliseconds ***

5

What are causes of long QT

ischemic heart disease
low K, Ca, or Mg
channelopathy
many other things

6

What is the risk of early afterdepolairzations (aka long QT)

ventricular tachycardia

7

What is the risk of ventricualr tachycardia?
What is the preventative treatment for ventricular tachycardia?

sudden death

defibrillator

8

loss of fucntion in repolarizing outward K channel, I-KS

LQT1 (prolongation of phase 2)

9

inactivating mutation in Na channel

LQT3 (prolong phase 3)

10

loss of fucntion in repolarizing outward K channel, I-KR

LQT2

11

the type of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia typical of congenital LQT syndromes is called

torsades de pointes

12

What is life saving preventative Tx for torsades de pointes

defibrillator

13

group of channelopathies causing shorted cardiac myocyte APs --> ventricular tachycardia --> sudden death

brugada syndrome

14

brugada syndrome is most common in what age/race/gender

young asian males

15

persistently elevation of ST segments (>2 mm) descending with an upward convexity to an inverted T wave in leads V1-V3
(AT REST)

brugada pattern

16

Tx of brugada syndrome

defibrillator

17

mutations in ryanodine receptor

catecholaminergic
polymorphic ventricular tachycardia

18

What triggers arrhythmias?

high intracell Ca causing delayed afterpolarizations

19

Life saving-preventative treatment for arrythmias

Beta blockade or defibrillator

20

how many babies, children, and young adults die of cahnnelopathies each year

4,000

21

recognizing EKG signs of a _______ could save the life of a young person

channelopathy

22

Gross: pale mottled flabby dilated heart

viral myocarditis

23

pale septum

viral myocarditis

24

muations in genese encofding desomsomal proteins or myocyte adhesion; probably with a 2nd hit

RT ventricular cardiomyopahty

25

What does right ventricular cardiomyopathy cause?

re-entrant ventricular tachycardia

26

disease possibly assc with enteric viral infection of the right heart

Rt ventricualr cardiomyopathy

27

fatty replacement of myocytes frequently with lyphocytic inflitationd and later fibrous scarring

Rt ventricular cardiomyopathy

28

notch in terminal part of QRS is called ____ and can be a manifestation of ____

epsilon wave
Rt ventricular cardiomyopathy

29

life saving preventative treatment Rt ventricualr cardiomyopathy

defibrillator

30

describe the cardiac AP in the left ventricle, what channels are open and what/where ions move

phase 4 (-90): I-K1 moves K+ out of cells
Phase 0 (+10mV): I-Na moves Na+ into cells
Phase 1: I-to1,2 moves K+ out and Cl- out
phase 2: I-Ca-L and I-KS move Ca in and K+ out (at equal rates)
phase 3: I-KS, KR, K1 move K+ out (back to -90mV)

31

ST segment convex to top

Type 1 ECG brugada sign

32

ST segment downward straight

Type 1 ECG brugada sign

33

ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation during emotional or physical stress from a mutation in SR Ca release channel

familial catecholaminergic
polymorphic ventricular tachycardia

34

Microscopic: multifocal inflammation, intersitial, usually mononuclear and is assc with myocyte injury and necrosis

*predominant cells are lymphocytes and macrophages

viral myocarditis