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Systems 2 - The Endocrine System > The Pituitary Gland > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Pituitary Gland Deck (22)
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1

What is the principle organising system of the endocrine system?

The Hypothalamus-Pituitary axis

2

What is the hypothalamus-pituitary axis made of?

The hypothalamus connected to the pituitary gland via the infidibulum (stalk) - communication is both neural and endocrine

3

Where do all hypothalamic trophic hormones bind to?

Receptors on the anterior pituitary

4

What are the five essential stimulating hypothalamic 'releasing' hormones?

1. TRH
2. CRH
3. GHRH
4. GnRH
5. PRH

5

What are the two hypothalamic inhibiting hormones?

1. Growth Hormone Inhibiting Hormone (Somatostatin)
2. Dopamine (Prolactin inhibiting hormone)

6

What type of hormones are the hypothalamic inhibiting and releasing hormones>

All peptides except dopamine (amine)

7

What are the functions of the two lobes of the pituitary gland?

Anterior - true endocrine gland

Posterior - Neuroendocrine gland

8

What proportion of the pituitary gland is taken up by its anterior lobe?

2/3rds

9

What hormones does the adenohypophysis (anterior lobe) secrete?

1. TSH
2. ACTH
3 FSH
4. LH
5. GH
6. ProL

10

What three centres integrate to form a complex control system for the anterior pituitary?

1. Hypothalamus
2. Anterior pituitary
3. Target endocrine cell

11

What is a short feedback loop for the anterior pituitary?

Where the hormone produced by the AP is an inhibiting molecule for the hypothalamus

12

What is a long feedback loop for the anterior pituitary?

Where the hormone produced by the pituitary's target organ acts as an inhibiting molecule for the pituitary/hypothalamus

13

What two peptide hormones does the posterior pituitary gland release?

Vasopressin and oxytocin

14

How are vasopressin and oxytocin produced?

Synthesised in magnocellular neurones which have their cell bodies in specific areas of the hypothalamus

15

How does the hypothalamus connect to the posterior pituitary?

Axons project down the infidibulum and into the PP

16

What other characteristics do the hypothalamo-posterior pituitary axons have?

They do not synapse

They terminate directly on the capillary network

17

What is the other name for the posterior pituitary?

Neurohypophysis

18

What is the hypothalamus-hypophyseal portal system?

Network of tiny vessels which transfer trophic hormones from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary

19

Where do nreuroecretory neurones release hormones?

Medial eminence

20

What are trophic hormones?

Hormones which govern the release of other hormones

21

What type of hormones are all hormones released from the hypothalamus?

Neurohormones

22

What type of hormones are all hormones released by the posterior pituitary?

Neurohormones