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Flashcards in The Endocrine Pancreas Deck (33)
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1

What two centres of the brain govern food intake?

Feeding centre and satiety centre (both in the hypothalamus)

2

What two theories govern food intake?

1. Glucostatic theory
2. Lipostatic theory

3

What does glucostatic theory state?

Food intake is determined by blood glucose concentrations - as [BG] increases the drive to eat decreases

4

What does the lipophilic theory state?

Food intake is determined by fat stores - as fat stores increase, the drive to eat decreases

5

What peptide hormone plays a role in depressing feeding activity?

Leptin

6

How can obesity arise from the threories of food intake?

Disruption of the pathways

7

What three categories of energy output are there?

1. Cellular work
2. Mechanical work
3. Heat loss

8

What is the only type of energy output we can regulate?

Mechanical

9

What is the definition of metabolism?

Integration of all biochemical reactions in the body

10

What three elements comprise metabolism?

1. Extracting energy from nutrients in food
2. Storing that energy
3. Utilising that energy for work

11

What two metabolic pathways are there?

Anabolic and catabolic

12

What phase of metabolism do we enter after eating?

Absorptive phase - anabolic

13

What phase of metabolism do we enter between meals and overnight?

Post-absorptive phase (fasting) - catabolic

14

What is an obligatory glucose user? Give an example?

An organ that can only utilise glucose as a respiratory substrate

15

State the normal range of blood glucose

4.2-6.3mM/L (80-120mg/L)

16

What do alpha cells secrete in the pancreas?

Glucagon (peptide hormone)

17

What is the primary action of glucagon?

Raise blood glucose by stimulating the liver to undergo glycogenolysis

18

What is the half life of glucagon?

5-10 mins

19

What hormone is secreted by the beta cells?

Insulin

20

What is the primary action of insulin?

To decrease blood glucose

21

What hormone do delta cells secrete?

Somatostatin

22

What hormone do F cells secrete?

Pancreatic polypeptide (functionally irrelevant)

23

Outline the sequence of events that insulin instigates to decreased blood glucose

1. Actives tyrosine kinase receptors
2. Stimulates mobilisation of specific GLUT-4 receptors which reside in the cytoplasm of unstimulated muscle and adipose cells

24

What are the additional secondary effects of insulin?

1. Glycogen synthesis
2. Increase uptake of amino acids
3. Inhibits proteolysis
4. Increases TAG synthesis
5. Inhibits gluconeogenesis
6. Permissive effect on growth hormone

25

What tissues are insulin sensitive?

Muscle and fat

26

Other tissues use other glucose transporters to uptake glucose; give a few examples

GLUT-1 - brain, kidneys and RBCs
GLUT-2 - Pancreas and liver
GLUT-3 - similar to GLUT-1

27

List stimuli that increase insulin release

1. Increase in [BG]
2. Increase [Amino acid]plamsa
3. Glucagon
4. Other (incretin) hormones increasing GI motility/secretion
5. Vagal nerve activity

28

List stimuli that inhibit glucose release

1. Low [BG]
2. Somatostatin
3. Sympathetic alpha2 effects
4. Stress e.g. hypoxia

29

What receptors does glucagon work on?

GPCR linked to adenyl cyclase which activate cAMP to phosphorylate liver enzymes

30

What stimuli cause secretion of glucagon?

1. Low [BJG]
2. High [AAs]
3. Sympathetic innervation
4. Cortisol
5. Stress e.g. exercise and infection

31

What inhibits the release of glucagon?

1. Glucose
2. FFAs and ketones
3. Insulin
4. Somatostatin

32

What is the main action of somatostatin?

Inhibits activity in the GI tract

33

How can synthetic somatostatin be used clinically?

In the treatment of life-threatening diarrhoea associated with pancreatic tumours